the most tremendous of any recorded in history.
The last eruption, which was less terrific in its
consequences, occurred in December 1821. The
climate is not extremely cold, but the seasons are
variable. The sea, at a small distance from the
shores, is seldom frozen ; and very little ice is ever
seen near the W. coast, notwithstanding is prox-
imity to Greenland. Iceland is governed as a
dependency of Denmark, and is divided into four
provinces, 19 shires, and 184 parishes. The in-
habitants were estimated at 50,092 in 1824. Their
houses are at a distance from each other, and
many of them deep in the ground; but they are
all miserable hovels of turf, without windows, and
those of the common class are such wretched dens
that it is wonderful how anything in the human
form can breathe in them. The Danes trade with
the natives for hides, tallow, train oil, whalebone,
and seahorses teeth, which are as good as ivory.
The established religion is the Lutheran, and
there are 300 churches in the island. The dis-
tressing scarcity of bibles which had long pre-
vailed, was relieved, in 1815, by a liberal distri-
bution from Britain, which were received with the
greatest thankfulness. The principal school, held
at a place called Bessestadt, near the W. coast,
has three masters, who teach the classics, the-
ology, and the Danish language ; and societies
have been formed for the cultivation of literature.
Icohnkill, or Iona, one of the Hebrides, near the
S .W. point of the isle of Mull, only 4 m. long,
and one broad. Here are the ruins of an augustine
nunnery, monastery, and cathedral, said to have
been founded by St. Columba, about the year 735 ;
also a small chapel dedicated to St. Oran, con-
taining many marble tombstones of the great lords
of the isles; and adjoining it is a cemetery, in
which many ancient kings of Scotland, Ireland,
and Norway, are buried. Other ruins of monas-
tic and druidical edifices can be traced ; and many
places are pointed out, noted for particular acts
of St. Columba. This island was the retreat of
learning, during the Gothic ignorance which per-
aded Europe, after the overthrow ofthe Roman
Empire; and the seminary whence issued those
pious monks and laymen who again revived
learning, and propagated Christianity through
many kingdoms of Europe.
Ida, a lofty and pointed mountain in the middle
of the island cf Candia. famous in ancient times
as being tne place on which Jupiter was brought
up, and where there was a temple dedicated to
Ida, a mountain of Asiatic Turkey, 140 m. to
the W. of Olympus.
Idanha a Neuva, a town of Portugal, in Beira, 3
m. S. W. of Idanha a Velha.
Idanha a Velha, a town of Portugal, in Beira.
The French took it by assault in 1704. It i?
seated on the Ponsul, 25 m. E. of Castel Branco.
Long. 6. 14. W., lat. 39. 39. N.
Idria, a town of the Austrian states, in Carnio
la, celebrated for its rich quicksilver mines, 20
m. E. N. E. of Gorz.
Idstein, a town of Germany, in the duchy of
Nassau, with a castle, the residence of the
duke; situate in a district containing several
forests and iron works, 16 m. N. of Mentz, 22. S
W. ofWetzlar. .
If, an island ift the Mediteranean, on the coast
of France, the most eastern of the three before
the harbour of Marseilles, and well fortified.
Iglau, a fortified town of Moravia, capital of a
circle of the same name, with two convents and
a college. Good cloth is manufactured here, and
the commerce in corn and hemp is considerable.
It is seated on the Igla, 40 m. W. N.W. of Brinn.
Long. 15. 32. E., lat. 49. 28. E.
Iglesias, a town of the island of Sardinia, and
a bishops see, 37 m. W. S. W. of Cagliari. Long
8. 39. E., lat. 39. 18. N.
Ilior. See Jollore.
Ikenj, a town of Hindoostan, in Mysore, for-
merly the capital of a principality. It was of a
great size, surrounded by three concentric walls;
but, the court being removed to Nagara, the in-
habitants willingly followed, and the town was
Ha. See Isla.
llak, or Jalak, a town of Nubia, on the Nile,
supposed by some to be the ancient Meroe. Long.
34. 30. E., lat. 18. 48. N.
Ilanz, a town of Switzerland, in the Grisons,
capital of the Grey League. It is seated on the
Rhine, 23 m. S. AV. of Coire.
Ilchester, or Ivelchester, a borough in Somer
setshire, with a market on Wednesday. It is a
place of great antiquity,and the birth-place of the
celebrated Roger Bacon. The election of the
county members is held here, and here also is tlie
county gaol. It is seated on the Ivel, 16 m. S.
by AV. of Wells, and 122 W. by S. of London.
Ildefonso, St., a town of Spain, in New Castile,
noted for a magnificent summer palace, built by
Philip V.; and for a large manufacture of glass
belonging to the crown. It is 5 m. N. of Uzeda,
and 40 N. W. of Madrid.
Ildefonso, SC, a town of Mexico, in the prov-
ince of Guaxaca, seated on a mountain, 70 m. E.
N. E. of Guaxaca.
Uderton, a village in Northumberland, Eng. 4
m. S. of AYooler. On a hill near it is a semicircu-
lar encampment, defended by two high rampiers
of earth, and a deep fosse, with an inner circle of
stones, which appear uncemented. The area is
about 100 yards diameter, and contains many re-
mains of buildings.
llfracomb, a sea-port in Devonshire, Eng. It
has a spacious natural basin, with a good pier
and quay, projecting into the Bristol Channel.
This port employs a number of brigs and sloops,
chiefly in carrying ore from Cornwall, coal from
Wales, and corn from Bristol; also a number of fish-
ing skiffs. It is 49 m. N. N. W. of Exeter, and 202
W. of London.
Ilheos, a province of Brazil, S. of that of All
Saints Bay. Its chief town of the same name is