Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 354
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GUA    354    GUE

they termed the months Iodlur, that is to say, a
moveable thing,—a very remarkable denomina-
tion, because it evidently approaches the word
by which the ancient Scandinavians designated
the feast that terminated the year,—a term ap-
parently analogous with
tched or cycle. Similar
divisions of the year into eighteen months pre-
vailed among the Aztecs of Mexico. Each month
consisted of twenty days, and five complementary
days were added at the end of the year, which was
Cempohualilhuitl, from cempohualli,
twenty, and ilhuitl, festival. The cazique of these
Mosquitoes, who inhabit the coast between Black
River and Cape Gracias a Dios, lately sold or
transferred that territory to a person of the name
of Gregor MacGregor, who had attained some
notoriety in the late Colombian struggle for lib-

According to the respectable testimony of Go-
mara, and almost all the accounts and maps that
have been published, the great lake of Nicaragua,
is covered with beautiful and populous islands,
amongst which only one contains a volcano,named
Omo that always continues burning; it has no out-
let towards the South Sea ; all its waters descend-
ing by the river St. John, in the direction of the
North or Atlantic Sea. This river, the scene of
Nelson’s earliest exploits, forms about thirty falls
before it reaches the marshy shores of the sea,
where a pestilential air, and Indians distinguished
alike for their perfidy of character, and the feroci-
ty of their disposition, fill the most intrepid navi-
gators with alarm. The lake, then, is situated on
a plateau, but at what elevation? “ The coast of
Nicoya,” says Dampier, “is low. and covered with
shrubs. To reach San Leon de Nicaragua one
must walk twenty miles across a flat country, co-
vered with mangroves, pasture land, and planta-
tions of the sugar cane.” These remarks of a ju-
dicious observer appear to indicate that there is
no considerable chain of mountains between the
Lake of Nicaragua and the Pacific Ocean. The
physical geography of this country is unquestion-
ably possessed of great interest, and yet it is to-
tally neglected.

Among the numerous volcanoes of this country,
that of
Masaya. three leagues (Castilian) from
Granada, and ten from Leon, appears ^to be the
most considerable. Its crater, which is half a
league in circumference, and 250 fathoms in depth,
ejects neither cinders nor smoke. The matter,
which is perpetually boiling within it, diffuses so
intense a light through the air that it is visible at
the distance of 20 leagues. So much, in fact,
does it resemble gold in a state of fusion, that the
first Spaniards actually supposed it to be this met-
al, the object of their anxious search; and stimu-
lated by their avaricious temerity, vainly attempt-
ed to seize, with iron hooks, some of this very sin-
gular lava.

No mines have as yet been discovered in the
province of Nicaragua; but it is fertile in every
description of fruit, and abounds in large and small
cattle, especially in mules and horses. They also
carry on a great trade in cotton, honey, wax, ani-
seed, sugar, cochineal, cocoa, salt, fish, amber,
turpentine, and petroleum, together with different
balsams and medicinal drugs. The palm trees
grow to a colossal size.
Lean, the capital, is sit-
uated on the margin of a lake, which empties it-
self into the Nicaragua. It inhabitants, rich, vo-
luptuous, and indolent, derive but little advantage
from the excellent port of
Realejo, formed by a
r>ay of the South Sea.

























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The province of Costa Rica contains no mines,
and hence it has been said that this name has
been ironically applied to it; but its extensive
forests of building timber, its rich pastures, and
picturesque scenery, afford abundant reasons for
this appellation. Cattle, and especially hogs,
swarm here to an extraordinary degree. In the
Gulf of Salinas the muscle yielding purple is

Guatemala declared itself an independent state
in 1823. The government bears a close resem-
blance to that of the United States. The Con-
gress consists of a Senate and House of Representa-
tives. The executive are a President and Vice Presi-
dent chosen for 4 years. The government however is
little more than nominal, the country having been
lately in a perpetual state of turbulence and dis-
sension. The population is about 1,800,000.

Guatemala, city, the capital of the above repub-
lic, commonly called Guatemala La Nueva, or
New Guatemala, stands on a little stream called the
Yacas flowing into the Pacific. It is in lat. 14. 40.

N. and long. 91. 25. W. It is handsomely built,
with regular streets and many elegant public
buildings. It was greatly damaged in 1830 by an
earthquake. Previous to that event it contained

40,000 inhabitants.

Guaxaca, a province of the chain of territory
now forming the republic of Guatemala, compris-
ing about 28,000 square miles, extending from sea
to sea. The chief city of the same name is seat-
ed on the banks of a river, which fails into the
gulf of Mexico, in the lat. of 17. 15. N., and 96.
20. of W. long., 450 m. N. W. of the city of Gua-

Guyaquil, one of the 12 provinces of Colombia,
according to the division of 1825, bordering on the
Pacific Ocean, comprising the S. W. part of the
republic. The capital or chief town of the same
name, is seated on the AV. bank of a river falling
into a gulf or bay of the same name, about 20 m.
from the sea. Guyaquil is the sea-port of Quito,
from which it is distant about 150 m. S. S. W.
The surrounding country produces an abundance
of the finest cocoa, of which large quantities are
exported to all parts of Europe. Lat 2 lli S.

AV. long. 79. 40. Pop. about 20,000.

Guayra la, or Laguira, a sea-port of Colombia,
on the shore of the Carribean sea, and in the
new province of Venezuela. It is in lat. 10. 37.
N., and 66. 58. of W. long., 7 m. N. of the
city of Leon de Caracas, of which it is the sea-
port; it exports large quantities of cocoa to
Europe, and mules and cattle to the West India
Islands; and although the harbour is inconveni-
ent, the traffic is considerable. Pop. about 6,000

Guben, a town of Lusatia, capital of a circle of
its name, which yields great quantities of excel-
lent red wine. It is seated on the Lubst near it*
conflux with the Neisse, 24 m. N. E. of Cot-
bus, and 68 S. E. of Berlin. Pop. about 6,000,

Gudensberg, a town of Germany, in Lower
Hesse, 10 m. S. S. W. of Cassel.

Gueravde, a town of France, in the department
of Lower Loire, with a considerable trade in salt.

It is 3 m. from the Atlantic, and 40 W. by N. of >
Nantes. Pop. 7,252.

Guerche, a town of France in the department
ofllle and Vilaine, 20 m. E. S. E. of Rennes
Pop. 3,980.

Gueret, a town of France, capital of the depart
ment of Creuse. It is seated on the j iver Creuse,

35 m. N. E. of Limoges, and 190 S. by W, of
Paris. Pop. 4,014.


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