Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 326
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$

GEO    326    GER

length from N. to S and 240 in breadth and con-
tains 50,000 sq. m.

The river Savannah washes almost the whole
of the eastern boundaiy. Tiie Ogeechee and
Alatamaha have their whole course within the
state ; the Flint and Chatahoochee pass out of
the state to the south. There is a small mountain-
ous tract in the north, but nearly the whole country
is an unbroken level. The soil is of various qual-
ities. A chain of islands stretching along the
whole coast have a fertile soil and produce the
first cotton in the world, well known by the name
of Sea Island cotton. The land here and along
the shore consists of marshy tracts, and swells in
the surface called hammoc land. On the Florida
border is the great swamp of
Okefonoko, (which
see.)
Beyond is a belt of pine barrens interspersed
with swamps. Still farther the country becomes'
sandy, but towards the hilly region the soil is
strong and productive. There are many large
forests which afford timber for exportation. In
those parts which are flooded by the rivers the
land is devoted to the cultivation of rice. The
rice plant has a fibrous root, and puts forth stems
which grow to the height of 4 and 5 feet. The

ters, sounding exactly like those three words. It
begins its call towards evening, and continues w ith



.eaves are long and fleshy, somewhat similar -to
those of the leek. The flowers are of a purple
colour and grow in clusters on the top of the
stalks. In the early stages of its growth the rice
fields are inundated with water.

The most profitable agricultural employment is
the cultivation of cotton. Indigo was formerly
produced in considerable quantities, but the cul-
ture has almost totally ceased. Slave labour
is universally employed, and agriculture as a sci-
ence has made very little improvement.

The climate in the southern part is hot and un-
healthy. Epidemic fevers rage in the summer
and autumn, rendering the country unsafe for
strangers and even natives. The sea islands how-
ever are esteemed salubrious and many of the
planters spend the hot season there. In the,
north, pine forests abound; and here the air is pure
i and as healthy as in any part of the United States.
( The heat of summer, is excessive and the annoy-
< ance from moschetoes one of the greatest dis-
comforts imaginable. No sleep can be enjoyed
, at night without the precaution of placing a
moscheto net of gauze at every window. The
number of frogs in the swamps and small
streams is prodigious. Alligators abound in eve-
ry stream of the low country. Great numbers
of water fowl frequent these parts as well as the
beaches and inlets of the sea-coast. The Chuck
Will’s Widow is one of the most common birds
here, but is rarely seen north of Tennessee and
Virginia. It is a solitary bird, somewhat resemb-
ling the Whip-poor-will, and is often confounded
with it it name is derived from the notes it ut-
short interruption for several hours. In a still
evening it may be heard at the distance of a mile-

Georgia is divided into 76 Counties. The cap
ital is Milledgeville. The largest towns are Sa-
vannah and Augusta. It has a university At Ath-
ens and a school fund of 500,000 dollars. It has
no manufactures. Its trade consists chiefly in the
exportation of cotton and rice. The commerce
of the state is chiefly carried on hy northern ves-
sels. The shipping owned in the state amounted
in 1823 to 13,959 tons. The imports in 1829 were
380,293 dollars. The exports of domestic produce
4,980,642 dollars. Total exports, 4,981,376 dol-
lars.

The legislature is called the General Assembly,
and consists of a Senate and House of Represen-
tatives. The Senators and Representatives are
chosen in counties. The Governor is chosen by
the legislature for two years. Suffrage is univer
sal. The pop. is 516,567, of whom 217,240 are
slaves. In addition to these are the Cherokee In-
dians, inhabiting the north-western part of the
state. See
Chtrokces.

The Baptists are the most numerous sect in re-
ligion ; they have 205 ministers. The Methodists
have 64; the Presbyterians 31; the Episcopalians
4 ; the Christians 28 and the Catholics 3.

The first settlement in Georgia was made at
Savannah in 1733, consequently it was the latest
settled of all the Atlantic states. The present
constitution was formed in 1798.

Georgia, or South Georgia, an island in the
South Atlantic Ocean, visited by Cook in 1775.
It is 64 m. long, and 30 in its greatest breadth.
It abounds in bays and harbours, which the vast
quantities of ice render inaccessible the greatest
part of the year. Here are perpendicular ice
cliffs, of considerable height, like those at Spitz
bergen; from which pieces were continually
breaking off and floating out to s£a. The vallevs
wrere covered with snow; and the only vegeta-
tion observed was bladed grass, wild burnet, and
a plant, like moss, which sprung from the rocks
Not a stream of fresh water was to be seen on the
whole coast.

Georgia, Gulf of, a gulf of the North Pacific
Ocean, betwreen the continent of North America
and Quadra and Vancouver Island; about 120
m. in length, from N. to S., but the breadth va-
ries in its different parts from 6 to 20 m. It con-
tains several clusters of islands, and branches off
into a great number of canals, most of which were
examined by captain Vancouver and his officers.

Gera, a town of Upper Saxony, in Thuringia
It has a castle about a mile from the town, on a





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