Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 302
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FLO    302    FLO

er, on which a battle was fought between the
English and Scots in 1513, in which James IV.
was killed, with many of his nobility, and 10,000

Florae, a town of France, in the department
of Lozere, 13 m. S. of Mende, and 55 N. of
Montpelier. It is the seat of a prefect. Pop. in

Florence, a celebrated city of Italy, capital of
Tuscany, and an archbishop's see, with a citadel,
and a university. It was first founded by the
soldiers of Sylla, embellished and enlarged by the
triumvirs; destroyed by Totila, and rebuilt by
Charlemange. The circumference is about 6 m.
and the fortifications consist of only a wall and a
ditch, with two or three forts which command a
part of the town. It is divided into two unequal
parts, by the river Arno, over which are four
handsome bridges. The quays, the buildings on
each side, and the bridges, render the part
through which the river runs by far the finest;
but every part is full of wonders in the arts of
painting, statuary and architecture. The envi-
rons are beautiful, rich, and populous. Some of
the Florentine merchants, formerly, were men
of great wealth ; and one of them, in the middle
ofthe fifteenth century, huilt that noble fabric,
which, from the name of its founder, is still called
the Palazzo Pitti. It was afterwards purchased
by the Medici family, who made some enlarge-
ments ; and it thence became the residence of
the grand dukes of Tuscany. The Palazzo
Vecchio, or old palace, contains a room 172 feet
long, and 70 wide, for public entertainments.
The beauties and riches of these palaces, in all
that is masterly in architecture, literature, and
the arts, especially those of painting and sculpture
have been often described. The celebrated Venus
of Medici, the standard of taste in female beauty
and proportion, stood in a room called the Tri-
bune; this, with other masterpieces of sculp-
ture, was carried away to Paris, but restored with
most of the other works of art at the general
peace in 1815. There are other rooms, whose
contents are indicated by the names they bear;
as the cabinet of arts, of astronomy, natural histo-
ry, medals, portraits, porcelain, antiquities, &c.
Beside the Medicean library begun by Julius
de Medici, and greatly augmented by duke
Cosmo I., there are several other copious libra-
ries, especially those in the two Benedictine and
Carmelite convents. Tlfe Florentine Academy
and the Academia della Crusca were instituted
to enrich the literature and improve the language
of Tuscany; the latter is so named because it
rejects like
bran all words not purely Tuscan.
The cathedral, the churches, and other public
buildings, contain paintings and sculpture by the
first masters in Italy ; and the chapel of Lorenzo is
perhaps, the most expensive habitation that ever
was reared for the dead, being incrusted with
precious stones, and adorned with the workman-
ship of the best modern sculptors. The manufac-
tures of Florence are chiefly silks, satins, gold
and silver stuffs, and damask table cloths. It has
a considerable trade in fruits, oil, and excel-
lent wines. Florence is 45 m. E. N. E. of Leg-
horn, which is its out-nort, and 125 N. W. of
Rome. Long. 11. 3. E.. lat. 43. 46. N. Pop. in
1825, 75,207.

Florence, p.t. Oneida Co. N. Y. Pop. 964. Also
a village in Alabama, the capital of Landerdale
Co. on the Muscle Shoals of Tennessee River.
Also a village in Huron Co. Ohio.

Florent, St. a town of France, in the department
of Mayenne and Loire, with a Benedictine abbey;
seated on the Loire, 20 m. W. S. W. of Angers.

Florentin, a town of France, in. the department
of Yonne, at the conflux of the Armance and
Armancon, 15 m. N. E. of Auxerre, and 80 S. E.
of Paris.

Florentino, or Florentine, a province of Tusca-
ny; bounded on the N. W. .by the republic of
Lucca and the Modenese; N. E. by the Apen-
nines, and S. by the Siennese. Pop. about 580,-
000: besides Florence the capital, the other prin-
cipal towns-are Leghorn, Pisa, and Pistoia.

Flores, or Mangeyle, an island of the East Indies,
one of the chain that forms the S. boundary of
the Java and Banda seas, 108 m. long and 45
broad, lying to the E. of that of Sumbawa. On
the S. side, near the E. end, is a town named
Larantuca. Long. 121. 56. E., lat. 8. 50. S.

Flores, a fertile island, one of the Azores, so
called from the abundance of flowers found upon
it. Lagens is the most populous town, but St.
Cruz is the capital. Long. 31. 0. W., lat. 39.
34. N.

Florida, a Territory ofthe United States,and the
most southern portion of the country. Its south-
ern point is in 25. N. lat., and it extends N. to 31.
It lies between 80. 25. and 87. 20. W. long, and
contains, about 45,000 sq. m. It is shaped some-
what like an L, the southeastern part being a pe-
ninsula washed by the ocean on the E., and the
Gulf of Mexico on the W. Its boundaries on the
N. are Georgia, and Alabama. It has been usual
to consider this territory as consisting of two divi-
sions, East and West, but there is at present no
political distinction.

The land is low and generally either sandy or
swampy. On the coast it is mostly barren. There
are many savannas covered with a thick growth
of grass and flowers. In the swampy tracts the
cane brakes are of an enormous height -and thick-
ness. The reed canes are sometimes 30 and 40
feet high. The ponds and bayous are in summer
covered with aquatic plants, and abound with al-
ligators. The uplands of the.interior are the most
fertile and bear the name of
hammoe lands from
the tufts or swells which they exhibit. The greater
part of the surface is a pine barren ; this is a land
with a grey and reddish soil producing coarse
grass and a scanty growth of pine trees. Almost
every part of the county affords abundance of
timber, as pitch pine, live oak, cypress, &c. Two
thirds of the country are covered with pine for-

The magnolia is a very common and beautiful
tree, and grows to the height of 100 feet with a
straight trunk surmounted by a conical mass of
dark green foliage covered over with large milk-
white flowers. Orange trees also flourish here,
and about St. Augustine and on the borders of ma-
ny of the lakes and savannas are manv beautiful
groves of them. Limes, grapes, and figs, grow
wild. The long moss or Spanish beard which
hangs in festoons upon the branches of the live
oak and pine, affords a good material for stuffing.

This country is very thinly inhabited, and har-
dly any thing is known from experience as to its
capabilities for agriculture; but it is thought to be
excellently adapted to the culture of tobacco, cot-
ton, indigo, rice, and sugar. At present the chief
objects of attention among the planters, are hiaize,
rice, potatoes, beans, melons, &c. The olive and
coffee have been tried here and the former will
undoubtedly succeed.


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