Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 291
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EUX    291    EVO

and Transylvania, are very old. In 1787, Zim-
mermann estimated the population of Europe
at 144,000,000; at present, according to Malte
Brun, it is not likely to be overrated at205,0004)00.
In 1819, Hassel estimated it at 180,550,000. Per-
haps 200,000,000 will be pretty near the truth,
which gives an increase of 56,000,000 in 40 years.
This population is not equally concentrated
throughout Europe. Thus, in the Duchy of
Lucca, it is in the ratio of 288 to a square m.;
while in Iceland and Faroe it is only 4 2-3.;
in the Netherlands it is as 212, in Great Britain
as 178, and in Sweden and Norway as 10 to
the square m. Upon the whole, the south of
Europe is more populous than the north in
proportion to its extent: and must continue so,
as the means of subsistence are procured with so
much greater facility in the countries of the for-
mer than in those of the latter. The climate of
Norway is quite as favourable to longevity as
that of Lucca; but the one comprehends a vast
tract of rugged, untillable surface,—the other is
a garden throughout.

In almost every European State, we find the
citizens divided into four distinct classes. The
first is that of the nobility, which exists in every
State, with the exception of Norway and the
Turkish empire. Nobility is, in most cases view-
ed in Europe as an hereditary rank; but it can
be acquired by the will of the sovereign, and
even, in some instances, purchased by money.
The clergy form the second class of the commu-
nity. The third is that of the citizens, or inhab-
itants of towns, which in most countries enjoys
peculiar rights and privileges. The fourth and
lowest class includes the peasants, and forms the
mass of the population in every country.

Eurville, a town of France, department of Up-
per Marne, 5 m. S. E. of St. Dizier.

Euskirchen, a town ofthe Prussian states, 23 m.
m. S. E. of Juliers.

Eustace, an island which forms, with a long
point of land, the entrance to the harbour of St.
Augustine, in E. Florida.

Eustatia, St. one of the least ofthe Leeward Isl-
ands, in the West Indies, 10 m. N. W. of St. Chris-
topher. It is a mountain in the form of a sugar
loaf, whose top is hollow, yet for its size, it is one
of the most valuable of all the Carribees. To-
bacco is cultivated on its sides, to the very sum-
mit ; and hogs, kids, rabbits, and all kinds of poul-
try, are in great abundance. It has a town of
the same name, with a good fort. It was taken by
the English in 1781, who pillaged the inhabitants,
and confiscated all private property ; it was soon
after retaken by the French, and restored to the
Dutch, in 1783; again taken by the English, in
1801, and again restored to the Dutch, at the gen-
eral peace of 1814.

Eutin, a town of Lower Saxony, in Holstein,
near the side ef a lake, 20 m. N. N. W. of Lu-

Euxine, or Black Sea, a large inland sea, divid-
ing Europe from Asia, between the latitudes of
41? and 47. N. extending E. from the long, of 28.
to 41. 25., giving an extreme length from W. to
E. of 606 geographical, or 702 British statute m.
On the W. it washes the coasts of Romania, Bul-
garia, and Bessarabia; and on that side receives
the waters of the Danube : at the N. W. corner
it receives the waters of the Dneister, and the
Dnieper, which flow through the southern prov-
inces of European Russia ; and from the N. be-
tween the longitudes of 33, and 37. E. projects
the peninsula of the Crimea, or Russian province
of Taurida. A narrow strait at the eastern ex- ’
tremity of this peninsula, leads into the sea of
Azof, into which flows the river Don : the N. E.
part ofthe Euxine, washes the coast of Circassia,
and the territory of the Abkhas; the eastern ex
tremity washes the coast of Mingrelia, which con
tributes to the winters of the Euxine by several
streams, the most important of which is the Roni
or Phasis: the S. part winshes the coasts of the
Turkish provinces of Armenia, Roum, and Natolia
which contribute the waters of the Kisil-Jermak,
and numerous other rivers of inferior note. The
Euxine communicates with the Mediterranean,
first by the narrow strait of Constantinople into
the sea of Marmora, and from thence by the Dar-
danelles, the ancient Hellespont, or Thracian Bos-
phorus, into the Grecian Archipelago. The nav-
igation of the Euxine appears to have been more
general in past than at the present time, the Phoe-
nicians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Venetians,
and Genoese, all appearing to have maintained an
extensive intercourse with the inhabitants on its
shores. In 1476, when the Turks drove the Gen-
oese from the Crimea, they precluded all inter-
course through the straits of Constantinople, and
claimed an exclusive right of navigation within.
In 1774 the Russians, and in 1784 Austria obtained
by treaty an equal right of navigation, which at the
peace of Amiens was extended to all nations; and
since the peace of 1814 a considerable traffic has
been carried on from the port of Odessa, between
the rivers Dniester and Dneiper, with the Medi-
terranean and with England; but the other parts
of its extensive shores are but little frequented,
and but little known, though doubtless suscep-
tible of affording a rich field for well-directed en-
terprize and exertion.























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Euzet, a town of France, in the department
of the Gard, and the chief place of a canton, in
the district of Uzes, 9 m. W. N. W. of Uzes.

Evansville, ph. Vanderburg Co. Indiana.

Evaux, a town of France, in the departmen:
of Creuse, near which is a mineral spring and
baths. It is 25 m. E. of Gueret.

Evansburg, p.v. Crawford Co. Pa.

Everettsville, p.v. Albermarle Co. Va.

Everding. See Efferding.

Everfeld, or Elverfeld, a town of Westphalia,
in the duchy of Berg, near the river Wipper, 18
m. E. of Dusseldorf.

Evergham, a populous town .of the Netherlands,
7 m. N. of Ghent

Evesham, a borough in Worcestershire, Eng-
land. Here sire three churches, and it had form-
erly an abbey, of which some remains are still
visible. A remarkable battle was fought here in
1265, between prince Edward, afterward Edward

I., and Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, in
which the earl and most of his adherents were
slain. Evesham is seated in a fertile vale, and
is nearly surrounded by the Avon. The vale is
mostly appropriated to gardens, and supplies vast
quantities of fruit and vegetables for the Worces-
ter, Bath, Bristol and other markets. It has also
some extensive flour mills, worked by the water
of the Avon, over which there is here a bridge
of 7 arches. It is 14 m. S. E. of Worcester,
and 100 N. W. of London. It returns two mem-
bers to parliament.

Evesham, t. Burlington Co. N. J.

Evora, a fortified city of Portugal, capital of
Alemtejo, and a bishop’s see, with a university.
Some remains of the ancient Roman wall are


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