Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 290
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ranges, attain the line of perpetual snow. The
Carpathian and Hercynian Mountains are sepa-
rated from the Alps and the Hellenic Mountains
by the Danube. This wild range, the general
elevation of which is from 4,000 to 5,000 feet,
completely encircles Transylvania, and is con-
nected with the Sudetes or Giant Mountains of
Silesia, and the
Erzgebirge or Metallic Mountains
of Saxony. The mountains of Russia have no
visible connexion with the other European moun-
tains. The woody heights of Valdai and Duder-
hof seem to form their centre, from which a num-
ber of secondary branches diverge, like radii, in-
to the surrounding country. The British, Irish,
and Icelandic mountains are all of secondary
rank. There are only three volcanoes properly
so called, in Europe; viz. Etna, Vesuvius, and
Hecla. Besides these, however, there are nine
jukels in Iceland, and two mountains upon Strom-
boli and Milo, which emit flames. Some natural-
ists assert that there are two great subterranean
fires under Europe, one of which cuts the first
meridian of the Arctic polar circle, and the other
extends under Italy and the Mediterranean, to-
wards the Archipelago.

The greater part of Europe is situated within
the northern Temperate zone; about a twelfth
part only of its superficies extends within the
Arctic polar circle. Although the astronomical
climates are greatly modified in this part of the
world by physical causes, we may, in taking a
general view of the climate of Europe, consider
it divided into four different districts, the boun-
daries of which are defined by parallels of latitude.
The Arctic district of Europe extends over a
superficies of about 400,000 square m., and the
warm district may be estimated at 540,000 square
m.; while upwards of 1,500,000 square m. belong
to the cold, and 970,000 to the temperate. With
the exception perhaps of Australia, Europe in
natural fertility of soil, and variety and richness
of proouctions, is much inferior to any other di-
vision o* the earth. Zimmermann asserts that
it has omy sixteen species of indigenous animals,
and these chiefly mice and bats. Some species
of wild animals have entirely disappeared before
the increase of population, while others have be-
come extremely rare The Fallow Deer are
found in greatest abundance in England. Yet

here they are diminishing.—And according to
Aristotle, the lion was once found in Greece, but
it no longer exists in Europe. The buffalo, the
elk, the stein-buck. and the beaver, are becoming
daily more rare in Europe; and the varieties of
game—which once seemed to possess, under the
protection of merciless tyrants, a fuller right in
the soil than man himself—are now confined to
juster limits. The rein-deer and dog are the
only domestic animals of the Polar zone. The
walrus, white bear, and blue fox, appear on the
shores of the Frozen Sea. The horse is found
to the 66th parallel, but in the high latitudes is
reduced to a dwarfish stature; cattle too lose
their horns in the northern regions, and shrink
in size ; even man himself appears here an infe-
rior species, whether physically or morally con-
sidered. Some Asiatic animals are found in
the neighbourhood of the Caspian and Sea of
Azof. The black bear, the urus, and the wolf,
are the most formidable wild animals now known

in Europe. The jackal is found in all the warm
regions; and the lynx and wild-cat attain con-
siderable dimensions in the Italian forests. Eu-
rope, though not wholly free of dangerous rep
tiles, suffers less from their presence than any
other region of the globe. The chameleon is
one of the most singular European reptiles The

mosquito is troublesome in the highest north ; and
flights of locusts occasionally arrive in Taurida
from the African or Syrian coast. Europe is in-
debted for its most valuable plants to other climes.
Originally it probably possessed little more than
forest-trees, a few shrubs, and some species of
grass. The cereal and leguminous plants are
now universally cultivated, and garden-herbs are
here usually of finer quality than elsewhere. The
vine is successfully cultivated at Witzenhausen
under 51. 21. 30., and at Zullichau under 51. 58.;
but, with these exceptions, wine manufactured
above the 50th parallel does not deserve the name.
The northern countries furnish good materials for
the carpenter and ship-builder. The forest-trees
of the warmer climate are tamarisks, carubes,
sumachs, mastics, the cork-tree, planes, syca-
mores, and cypresses. Every species of the infe-
rior and superior metals, and even several of the
more precious minerals, are found in Europe.
Hungary and Transylvania possess the nobler
ores; Russia, Sweden, and Norway, abound in
iron; England produces copper and tin; and-
Scotland, lead. There are likewise extensive
mines of rock-salt, alum, saltpetre, and coal, in
Europe.

It is difficult to estimate the precise amount of
the population of Europe, notwithstanding the
accuracy with which the census of most coun-
tries has been taken: for we do not possess a
census of contemporary surveys, and in Turkey
the population can only be loosely estimated from
the number of hearths paying tax to the Porte
The population-re turns of Russia, Hungary, Spain,






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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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