S. by the Bohemian mountains. It abounds in
valuable minerals. Freyhurg, Altenburg, and
Chemnitz, are the principal towns.
Escalona, a town of Spain, in New Castile, sur-
rounded by walls. It is situate on an eminence,
in a fertile country, near the Albreche, a tributa-
ry of the Tagus, 20 m. N. W. of Toledo, and 32
S. W. of Madrid.
Escambia, a county of West Florida. Pop.
3,386. Pensacola is the capital.
Eschwegen, a town and castle of Germany, in
the landgraviate of Hesse Cassel, seated on the
Werra, 25 m. E. S. E. of Cassel.
Escurial, a village of Spain, in New Castile,
seated on the Guadara, 15 m. N. W. of Madrid.
It takes its name from a noble structure, founded
by Philip II. in memory of the victory gained
over the French near St. Quentin, in 1557. This
edifice consists of a royal palace, a church, a mon-
astery, a college,a library,shops of different artists,
apartments for a great number of people, beautiful
walks, large alleys, an extensive park, and fine
gardens. It is buili of grey stones, found in the
neighbourhood, and in the iorm of a gridiron, be-
cause St. Lawrence, on whose day the victory
was gained, suffered martyrdom by being broiled
on such an instrument. It is a long square of 740
feet by 580, and four stories high, with a tower
at each angle 200 feet high ; and the palace forms
the handle of this imaginary gridiron. The most
remarkable part is the arched chapel; in which
is a magnificent sepulchre called the Pantheon,
being built in imitation of that church at Rome :
it is the burying-place ofthe kings and queens of
Spain; and is thought by some to be the most
curious piece of architecture in the world. The
church is built after the model of St. Peters at
Esgueyra, or Esgueria, a town of Portugal, in
Beira, 8 m. S. of Averio.
Esk, a river which rises in Scotland, in the N.
E. part of Dumfriesshire, and flows S. E. through
a dale to which it gives name to the edge of the
county. It there receives the Liddel from Rox-
burghshire, and enters Cumberland, flowing S.
by Longtown into the N. E. extremity of Solway
Esk, a river of Scotland, in Edinhurghshire,
formed by the junction of two streams called N.
and S. Esk. They almost encircle the town of
Dalkeith, passing on each side of the eminence
on which it stands, and unite a little below the
town. The river enters the Frith of Forth, at
Esk, North and South, two rivers of Scotland,
in Angusshire, which descend from the hills call-
ed the Braes of Angus. The former divides the
county from Kincardineshire for several miles,
and reaches the ocean, a little to the N. of Mont-
rose : the latter, after traversing the whole breadth
of the county, enters the bay on the W. of the
Eski Shehr, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Na-
tolia, on the river Sakaria, which falls into the
Black Sea. 80 m. E. S. E. of Bursa. Long. 31.
18. E., lat. 39. 43. N.
Esne, Asna, or Esnay, a town of Egypt, sup-
posed to be the ancient Latopolis. Here is an
ayicient temple, with walls on three sides, and in
the front 24 columns, well preserved : within it
are three stories of hieroglyphics, of men about
three feet high ; and the ceiling is adorned with
animals, painted with beautiful colours. On the
N. side of the town is another temole; richlv
carved with hieroglyphics, crocodiles, Ac. and a
mile to the S. is the monastery of St. Helena, which
contains many magnificent tombs. Esne stands
on the Nile, 300 rn. S. of Cario. Long. 31.40. E.,
lat. 24.46. N.
Esopus, p.t. Ulster Co. N. Y. Pop. 1,770.
EspaHon, a town of France, in the department
of Aveiron, on the river Lot, 14 m. N. N. E. of
Rhodez. It is the seat of a prefect, anil in 1325
contained 3,261 inhabitants.
Esperanee,p.v. Schoharie Co. N. Y.
Esposenda, or Espandenda, a sea-port of Portu-
gal, in Entre Douro e Minho, at the mouth of
the Cavado, 22 m. N. of Oporto. Long. 8.21. Wv
lat. 41. 32. N.
Esquimaux, a people of North America, chiefly
inhabiting Labrador, the shores of Hudsons bay,
the country between Gulf Welcome and Mac-
kenzies River, and probably Bherings Straits.
To the S. they extend as far as Slave Lake, and,
to the N., the territory which they occupy is
bounded by an icy sea, if such a sea really exists,
or else they extend their wandering excursions
into a frozen desert. A permament estahlishment
of this nation was met with by Captain Ross, at
Prince Regents Bay, in lat. 76. N.; and their
huts were numerous in many parts of Melville
Island, in lat. 75. N. The latter officer observed
them frequently in the islands of the Archipelago
of Barrow's Straits, though their timidity preven-
ted any intercourse. Little, squat, and feeble,
the complexion of these Polar men partakes less
of a copper hue, than of a reddish and dirty yel-
low. Their huts, which are of a circular form,
and are covered with deer-skins, can only be en-
tered by creeping on the belly. Yet the rude
necessities of the climate have suggested to this
feeble race many contrivances which do honour
to their ingenuity. The snenc-house, or the com-
fortable, and comparatively speaking commodious
dwelling, which they construct from the frozen
snow that surrounds them, affords a favourable
example. The rapidity and neatness with which
they raise these edifices, and render them imper-
vious to the rigorous atmosphere around, is truly
admirable; and these edifices, when finished, af-
ford their inhabitants a similar protection to that
whichjthe vegetable world receives from a cover-
ing of snow. The Esquimaux of Prince Regents
Bay, and of the Arctic Highlands, are entirely ig-
norant of boats and canoes, affording, it is said,
a unique instance of a fishing tribe unacquainted
with the means of floating on the water. Ross
advances strong grounds for considering them as
the true aboriginal race, from whence all other
Esquimaux are derived. They seem utterlv ig
norant of the nations to the south, and may be
considered as an independent tribe, separated by