Eichsfeldt, a territory of Germany, at the N. E.
extremity of the circle of the Lower Rhine, sur-
rounded by Brunswick, Thuringia, and Hesse.
It produces much flax and tobacco. Heileigen-
stadt is the capital. It is now divided between
Prussia and Hanover : it formerly belonged to
the elector of Mentz, and contained a pop. of
90,000, on a surface of about 600 square miles;
Stadt Worbis and Mulhausen are the other prin-
Eichstadt. See Aichstadt.
Eil Loch. See Linnhe Loch.
Eilenburg, a town of Upper Saxony, in Misnia,
situate on the Mulda, 12 m. N. E. of Leipzig.
Eimeo, one of the Society isles, in the Pacific
Ocean, lying 12 m. W. of Otaheite. The prod-
ucts of the two islands, and the manners of the
people, are much the same. Eimeo has steep
rugged hills, running in different directions, leav-
ing large valleys, ana gently rising ground about
their sides. The hills, though rocky, are gener-
ally covered with trees almost to the tops.
Einbeek, a fortified town of Lower Saxony, in
the principality of Calenberg. It has manufac-
tures of cloth and all kinds of stuffs; and in the
mountains near it are mines of silver, iron, cop-
per, and lead. It is situate 17 m. N. of Gottin-
gen, and 45 S. of Hanover. Pop. about 5,000.
Eisenach, or Eysenach, a town of Upper Saxo-
ny, at the western extremity of Thuringia, capital
o? a principality of the same name, with a cele-
brated college. The duke resides in a castle
within the town; and there is another on a
mountain out of it, called Warthurg, which, in
1521, was for some time the asylum of Luther.
It is seated on the Nesse, at its conflux with the
Horsel, 16 m. W. of Gotha Long. 10. 21. E.,
lat. 51 0. N. Pop. about 8,000.
Eisenartz, or Eisenitz, a town of Germany, in
Stiria, famous for its iron mines, 34 m. N. N. W.
Eisenberg, another town in Thuringia, 35 m.
S. W. of Leipzig. Pop. 3,500.
Eisenstadt, a town of Hungary, with a magnifi-
cent palace, 5 m. N. W. of Odenburg, and 27 S.
Eisleben, a town of Upper Saxony, capital of
the county of Mansfield, with a decayed castle.
The celebrated Luther was born and died here.
In the churches of St. Andrew and St. Ann are
the superb burial places of the ancient counts of
Mansfield. Eisleben contains many breweries,
and derives much profit from the neighbouring
iron mines. It is 28 m. N. N. AV. of Naumburg.
Long. 11. 47. E., lat. 52. 32. N.
Eisftld. a town of Upper Saxony, in the prin-
cipality of Coburg, with a castle. It has manu-
uctaies of vitriol, &c. and stands on the AVerra,
near its source, 7 m. E. of Hildburghausen.
EAm. an island in the Mediterranean sea, be-
tween Italy and the island of Corsica, and separ-
ated from Tuscany by the channel of Piombino.
It was known to the Greeks by the name of
to the Romans by thajt of IIva. The
form of the island is very irregular, the length
from E. to W. is ai»:-ut 14 m. and the greatest
breadth, which is at the AV. end, is between 8
and 9 m. and contains a pop. of about 14,000 souls.
The whole island presents numerous mountains,
separated by deep valleys, and some plains of con-
siderable extent; the south-west part is the most
elevated, and are composed of black and white
granite, susceptible of a fine polish. Elba has
been renowned for its mines of iron and load
stone, for a period beyond the reach of history.
Aristotle speaks of them as opened from time im
memorial; it has also quarries of fine marble. On
the N. E. part is the mountain, or mine of iron
ore, which supplies most of the forges of Italy.
The tower of Voltorgjo stands on this mountain,
on a shaggy rock. The view from this tower is
wonderfully fine every way, as the eye overlooks
the whole island, that of Corsica, many scattered
islets, the channel of Piombino, and a great range
of continent. On the E. side of the mountain
stands Rio, a village inhabited by miners. Under
it breaks out the only rivulet in Elba, which does
not run above a mile before it falls into the sea;
but the water gushes out of the rock in such abun-
dance, that it turns 17 mills in that short course.
The soil of Elba is very shallow, with scanty room
for cultivation, and few places level enough for
corn, producing little more than six months pro-
vision for its inhabitants; but the island is so situ-
ated that it can, in spite of a blockading fleet be
always supplied with provisions, and the garrison
with reinforcements. The wine is good, if made
with care and properly kept; the fruit of its stan-
dard trees are excellent, though not in great plen-
ty ; orange and lemon trees thrive very well in the
sheltered vallies and narrow plains near the sea.
There are several springs of excellent water in
the island; and the climate is much milder than
the adjacent continent, for it produces many fruits
and plants that cannot stand the Tuscan winters.
Among the animals and birds are wild boars,
hedge-hogs, partridges, quails, canary-birds,
nightingales, ortolans, &c. It has no rivers; but
there are a number of rivulets. This island was
held with Piombino, by the Appiani, as a fief of
the empire, till Charles V. thought proper to
transfer it to Cosmo I. duke of Florence, that he
might rescue it and the adjacent coasts from the
Turks and French. Before the French revolu
tion, it was subject to the prince of Piombino, ex-
cept Porto Ferrajo, and Porto Longone, the former
belonging to the duke of Tuscany, and the latter
to the king of Naples ; hut in 1801 the French be-
came possessed of the whole island. It now owes
its chief celebrity to the circumstance of its hav-
ing been ceded by the powers of Europe in full
sovereignty to Napoleon Bonaparte; after the
surrender of Paris to the allies in March 1814.
He landed at Porto Ferrajo, the capital of the
island, on the 4th of May in that year, but on the
26th of February following, he embarked again
for France, and reached Paris, without encount-
ering the least obstruction : since when the island
has been wholly ceded to the duke of Tuscany.
Porto Ferrajo, on the N. side of the island, is in
lat. 42. 50. N., and 10. 15. of E. long.
Elba, ph. Genesee Co. N. V. Pop. 2,679.
Elbassano, a town of European Turkey, in Al-
bania, 45 m. S. E. of Durazzo.
Elbe, a river of Europe, rising on the N. E.
frontier of Bohemia, bordering on Silesia, in the
lat. of 50. 30. N., and 15. 35. of E. long., flows
S. for about 40 m. past Konigingratz to Pardu-
bitz, in the circle of Chrudin, from whence it
takes a meandering course in a N. W. direction
to Melnick, where it receives the Moldau from
the frontier of Austria on the S.: from Melnick,
it continues a winding course through the circle
of Leutmeritz, in which it receives the Eger from
the frontier of Franconia, on the W. S. W. and
then enters the circle of Meissen in Upper Sax-
ony, still running in a N. W. direction past Dres-
den, into the duchy of Saxony to Magdeburg ;