Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 257
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DOM    257    DOM

which ensued rendered the cession nominal, the
French never having been able to take possession.
The Spanish flag continued to wave over the
fortress of the city of St. Domingo, until the 1st
>f December 1821, when the inhabitants issued a
lbrmal declaration of independence, and made
overtures to the republic of Columbia, to be ad-
mitted as an integral part of its confederacy, which
proposition however was not acceded to. Such
was the political state of St. Domingo at the pe-
riod of 1822, about which time the French by in-
trigue endeavoured again to regain an ascendan-
cy in the island, and conceiving all attempts by
farce of arms likely to prove ineffectual, they suc-
ceeded in inducing the Hay tians to agree to a pecu-
niary indemnity, for the loss of the plantations at
the commencement of the revolution ; this after
several years negociation, in 1825, was settled at

120,000,000 francs, or about £5,000,000 sterling,
payable by instalments, and under regulations
calculated to divert a great portion of the produce
of the island into the lap of France on better
terms than though she held the island in colonial
possession.

Under the mild and judicious administration of
president Boyer, Hayti promises to advance in
prosperity and social influence; a college has
been founded and liberally endowed at Cape Hay-
ii, fr which provision is made for instruction in
all tne languages, arts, and sciences, usually
taught in the European establishments of the like
kind; public schools have been established in
most ol the principal towns of the west part of
the island; and be the future destiny of St. Do-
mingo what it may, she is at present one of the
most interesting subjects for contemplation in the
world ; an age has hardly passed away since the
bulk of the inhabitants were held in the most ab-
ject and degraded state of bondage; since when
they have successfully resisted the arms of two of
the most powerful nations of their time, and now
remain pursuing a silent but steady course to-
il rads giving a new and additionally important
character to the social relations of the civilized
world.

Of its present extent of population and produce
there is no satisfactory information. The popu-
lation of the Spanish part of the island is suppos-
ed to have decreased considerably since 1785,
and is thought, now, not to exceed 100,000. In
speaking therefore of the island of St. Domingo
or Hayti, as it is now again generally called, all
that is politically important in relation to pop-
ulation and intercourse applies almost exclu-
sively to the W. end or about one third only of
the island ; the chief occupation of the compari-
tirely lew inhabitants of the eastern, or greater
part of the island, being that of attending to the
breeding of cattle, which they drive to the
markets of the more populous districts of the
west.

Under social institutions, and well directed ex-
ertion, Hayti would doubtless prove adequate to
supply the whole of Europe with an abundance
of all the luxurious products common to a tropi-
cal climate, whilst the artificial productions and
conveniences which Hayti would be able to com-
mand in exchange, might make it the most de-
lightful residence on earth. The temperature of
the mountains ranges at a mean of about 70, and
although in the plains it ranges at about 100, the
pressure of the heat is considerably modified by
the alternate land and sea-hrepzes ; the coast on all
rides is indented with convenient hays and har-
bours The indigenous vegetable productions of
St. Drmingo are various, beautiful and valuable ;
its mahogany is unrivalled for its texture and
beauty, and there is a satin wood proportionably
superior to that of other parts of the world. The
flowering shurbs are various, and no where sur-
passed in beauty and fragrance; vanilla and the
plantain are both luxuriant; pine for ship building
and house carpentry is abundant, whilst the cot-
ton tree supplies the material for canoes. Of
quadrupeds one only is known peculiar to the
island, the agouti cat, in size less than the com-
mon cat of Europe; all the domestic animals of
Europe, have, however, been introduced, and
thrive exceedingly; swine, horses, and horned
cattle, all running wild in considerable numbers.
The feathered race are numerous and beautiful in
plumage, and more melodious than common with
birds of tropical climates. There is a salt winter
lake of considerable extent between the French
and Spanish part of the island, on the S. side,
which as well as the plains and rivers of that side,
abound in alligators and other reptiles of great
size, and also in the noxious insects common to
the situation and climate. The land tortoise is
common, and the coast abounds in turtle and oth-
er fish.

Domingo, St., City of, is situate on the west
bank of a river called the Ozama, in lat. and long,
as previously laid down. The city was originally
founded in 1496, on the opposite bank of the riv
er, but afterwards moved to its present site. It is
regularly laid out, and like most of the cities built
by the Spaniards in this part of the world, the
private houses have interior courts and flat roofs
The cathedral, finished in 1540, is a ponderous ed-
ifice; the government house, hall of justice, bar
racks, and arsenal, are all respectable buildings,
it has also several convents, which have been
mostly deserted by their inmates since 1794. The
harbour is capacious, but exposed tc the tempests
from the S. W. The population, which at one
time amounted to 25,000, is now reduced to half
that number, and indicates decline rather than
prosperity. It was sacked by the English Admi-
ral Drake, in 1586, who obtained a ransom from
the inhabitants of about £7,000 to prevent further
devastation. It has not experienced any marked
vicissitudes since that period.

*** There are several other (owns called St.
Domingo in different parts of America, settled by
the Spaniards, but all inconsiderable.

Dominica, one of the West Indian Leeward Is-
lands,lying N. of Martinique and S. of Guadaloupe,
being about 34 miles from N. to S. and 10 in mean
breadth. It was discovered by Columbus on Sun-
day, November 3, 1493. A party of Frenchmen
settled upon it about the beginning of the 17th
century, who by cultivating the friendship of the
natives, succeeded in the culture of the soil. At
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, it was
agreed that it should be neutral, but the English
took possession of it in 1750, and it was confirmed
to them at the peace of 1763. It was captured by
a French force from Martinique in 1778, but re-
stored to the English in 1783, since when it has
remained in their possession. It is very produc-
tive of coffee of a choice quality, and yields some
sugar. Charlotte Towin at the mouth of a river
towards the S. end of the island on the W. side,
is in lat. 15. 18. N. and 61. 28. of W. long.

Dominica, the largest of the islands of the Pa
cific Ocean, called the Marquesas. Long 139.2
W. lat. 9. 41. S.

v 2




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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (18


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