Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 247
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DEN    247    DEN

stroyed ; and the name of the town was changed
to that of Francade; but, at the re-establishment
of the monarchy and Catholic mummery, St
Denis resumed its former celebrity. It is the seat
of a prefect, and seated on the river Crould, near
the Seine, five miles N. of Paris. Pop. in 1825,


Denmark, a kingdom of the north of Europe,
lying between the lat. of 53. 34. and 57. 43. N.,
partly continental and partly insular. The conti-
nental part comprises North and South Jutland
and Holstein Lunenburg ; and the insularpart, the
islands of Zealand, Funen, Laaland, Falster,
Bornholm, Femern, &c., all lying between the
east coast of Jutland and Sweden ; and in the At-
lantic Ocean, in the lat. of 62., are the Ferro Isles;
. and in the lat. of from 64. to 66. Iceland, and
several other islands lying off the west coast of
Jutland, all forming a part of the European do-
minions of the kingdom of Denmark, comprising
together an area of about 22,000 square miles of
surface. In addition to these the islands of St.
Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John, in the West
Indies, are also subject to Denmark. See each
part and island under its respective head. The
aspect of the continental part of Denmark is flat
and undiversified, containing neither mountains
nor rivers of any magnitude. It is largely inden-
ted by the sea, and possesses numerous creeks
ind bays, as well as internal lakes. The only ca-
nal of importance is that of Kiel, which will ad-
nit vessels of 12*1 tons burden, and extends from
Jie Baltic to the Eyder at Rendsbnrg. where the
fiver becomes navigable, thus opening a com-
munication between the two seas, through l'to
niles of territory. It is 22 English miles in
ength, and ten feet deep; its breadth at the top
s 100 feet, at bottom 54 feet. It was begun in
i777, and completed in 1785, at an expense of
£300,000 sterling. During the last war, between

3,000 and 4,000 vessels annually passed through
it, but in the time of peace the number is much
smaller. The lands are in general in an excellent
state of cultivation, and the pasturage is rich : the
climate bears a great resemblance to that of
Great Britain.

The Danish community, although its early his-
tory is involved in considerable obscurity, appears
to have been of Scandinavian origin, and its
monarchy ranks among the most ancient, perhaps
the most so of any. in Europe, having been con-
temporary with the proudest epoch of the Roman
empire. The advancement of the Danes in dis-
cipline and arms in the tenth century may be in-
ferred from their irruption into England at that
period, and their complete conquest of the coun-
try in the early part of the following century. It
was not. however, till towards the close of the
fourteenth century that Denmark appears to have
a respectable and commanding position
in the great European compact, when Norway by
inheritance, mi Sweden hy conquest and cession
in 1397. became united with Denmark under
qneen Margaret, whose heroism obtained for her
the appellation :-f the Semirimis of the North.
iVhen, in 14-te. the royal race of Skioldung be-
came extinct, Christian of Oldenburg succeeded
to the crown, by whom Holstein and Sleswick,
the southern province of Jutland, also became
annexed to the dominions of Denmark. Sweden
however, reestablished her independence in 1523,
which she has ever since maintained. The doc-
trines of Luther were early promulgated in Den-
mark. In 1522 the inhabitants embraced the

confession of Augsburg, and in 1536 the bishops
were deprived of their temporal power, and
placed on a footing similar to those of England,
with the exception of the Danish bishops having
no legislative voice. Previously to 1660 Denmark
was a limited and elective monarchy ; in that
year it was made absolute and hereditary, by a
revolution almost unparalleled in history. The
avarice and contentions of a rival aristocracy led
to such oppressions of the people as inuuced them
voluntarily to resign their liberties into the hands
of their sovereign. The turbulent and martial
spirit of Charles XII. of Sweden involved Den-
mark in a state of continual warfare during the
first, twenty years of the eighteenth century, which
contention terminated in 1720. In this year a
treaty of peace was concluded, that continued
with but little interruption for about eighty years, 1
during which period the inhabitants of Denmark
directed much of their attention to external com-
merce. This they pursued with considerable
success, purchasing from a company of French
adventurers the island of St. Croix in the West
Indies. They formed settlements in the East, at
Tranquebar on the Coromandel coast, and at the
Nicobar Isles ; and a factory at Canton, in Chi-
na ; and at the close of the century the commer-
cial navy of Denmark exceeded 250,000 tons, with
a proportionate national marine for its protection.

The interruption of the external commerce of
Holland and France, by the events of the war
with England, commencing in 1793, promised for
a time to make Denmark the emporium for all the
external commerce of the north of Europe, which
her local and advantageous maritime position at
the entrance to the Baltic Sea, tended miich to
favour. But. unhappily for the Danes, Denmark
became involved in the general contention of the
time, and in 1801 a British armament frustrated
their commercial career by the almost total de-
struction of their national marine.
(See Copenha-
gen) ■
The peace of Amiens, and the almost im-
mediate renewal of war, tended to revive the
hopes of Denmark for regaining her commer-
cial importance, and great exertions were made
to replenish and strengthen her national marine;
but the spirit and circumstances of the times
were such as to admit of no neutrality, and in
1807 another armament from England annihilated
her commercial career and her power for resu-
ming it. Her possessions both in the East and
West all fell into the hands of the English in that
year, and Norway was offered to Sweden as a
boon to induce that power to join the confederacy
against France, with which Denmark had coales-
ced. This proposal being assented to by Sweden,
involved Denmark in the political necessity of
endeavouring to resist the transfer; but, although
the efforts made were not inconsiderable, they
proved ineffectual. After the battle of Leipzig,
however, in Oct. 1813, which changed the rela-
tions of all the states of Europe, it was endeav-
oured to reconcile Denmark to the transfer of
Norway to Sweden, by proposing to cede to Den-
mark the Island of Rugen and Swedish Pome-
rania ; but in the general partitioning which took
place after the peace of Paris, in 1814, Norway
was confirmed to Sweden; the island of Rugen
and Pomerania to Prussia; whilst Denmark was
confirmed in the possession of Holstein Lunen
berg, and reinstated in her former possessions in
the West Indies.

As sovereign of Holstein-Lunenberg. Denmark
is a member of the Germanic confederation, her

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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