tal of the New Mark, with a castle. In 1760 it
was bombarded and almost destroyed by the
Russians, and in 1806 it was taken by the French.
It is seated amid morasses, at the conflux of the
Warta with the Oder, 46 m. east by north-of
Cutais, the chief town of Imeritia. The re-
mains of the cathedral seem to prove that it was
once a considerable place. It is seated on the
Riona, 120 miles west by north of Teflis. Long.
43. 0. E., lat. 42. 25. N.
Cutch, a country of Hindoostan, governed by a
rajah, and situate on the south-east of Sind ; the
east branch of the Indus separated the two coun-
tries. It extends along the north coast of the
Gulf of Cutch, and is separated from Guzerat by
the river Ban. It abounds with hills, woods, and
sandy wilds. The capital is Booge-booge, in the
lat. of 23. 16. N., and 69. 2. of E. long.
Cuttack, a maritime district of Hindoostan, ex-
tending from Lake Chilca in the lat. of 19. 30. N.
to the Subunreeka River which separates it from
Bengal in the lat. of 21. 30. N., being bounded on
the west by the province of Orissa. The rivers
Coyle, Nuddy and Mahanuddy intersect it from
west to east. It is a very fertile district, and has
numerous and extensive manufactures of cotton ;
but is more particularly celebrated as the chief
district of Hindoo devotees, and containing the
temple of Jagarnaut. The chief town of the
same name, sometimes called
Cuttack Benares is seated on an island formed
by the Mahanuddy River, about fifty miles from
the sea, in the lat of 20. 30. N. and 86. 10. of E.
long. Besides Jagernaut the other places of note
are Balasore, Masulipatam and Jagepoor. This
district was familiar to the Mahomedans as early
as the commencement of the thirteenth century,
but continued in possession of the Hindoos till
1569, when it surrendered to Solyman Kerang,
who annexed it to Bengal. In 1757 it was ceded
to the Nagpore Mahrattas, and fell into the pos-
session of the English in 1803. Population about
Cutter ah, a towin of Hindoostan in the province
of Oude, 25 miles south by east of Bereilly, cele-
brated for a decisive battle fought in its vicinity
on the 18th of April, 1774, between the Rohillas
and the British.
Cuxhaven, a sea-port of Lower Saxony, in the
Duchy of Bremen, situate near the point of the
promontory formed by the mouths of the rivers
Weser and Elbe. It is an insignificant place, but
rendered of some importance as the station of the
post office packets between England and the north
of Europe. It is 60 miles N. N. W. of Hamburg.
Lat. 53. 5Q- N., and 8. 40. of E. long.
Cuyahoga, a stream of Ohio falling into Lake
Erie at Cleaveland. The great Ohio Canal, passes
along this river and joins the Lake at its mouth.
See Ohio Canal.
Cuyahoga, a county of Ohio bordering upon
Lake Erie at the outlet of the above stream. Pop.
10,360. Cleaveland is the capital.
Cyclades, the ancient name of ten islands at
the entrance of the Grecian Archipelago, between
-36. and 38. of N. lat.
Cynthiana, ph. Harrison Co. Ken. Also a
township in Posey Co. Ind.
Cyprus, an island at the eastern extremity of
the Mediterranean Sea, lying off" the coast of
Syria, from which the eastern extremity of the
island is distant 70 miles. It is 165 miles in ex-
trema length, and 50 wide in its broadest part,
but its mean breadth does not exceed 30 miles,
giving an area of about 5,000 square miles, inter-
sected by mountains and streams of winter. The
mountains are of considerable elevation, and the
tops of some of them are covered with snow a
great part of the year. The principal river runs
from west to east, and is called the Pedia. Dur-
ing the national career of Egypt, Persia, Greece,
and Rome, Cyprus was the resort of the learned,
gay, refined, and vicious, of those nations. Its
preeminence declined with the fall of the Roman
Empire, and from its being the abode of all that
was refined in art, and voluptuous in every spe-
cies of indulgence, yielding to a numerous pop-
ulation abundance of every thing necessary to
subsistence and a variety of the most delicious
fruits; it rapidly became a wilderness in compar-
ison with its previous fertility, overrun by tribes
of Arabs, who were driven from the island during
the crusades, at the close of the twelfth century
by Richard I. of England, who assumed the title
of king of Cyprus. In 1480 it fell into the hands
of the Venetians, at which period it is made the
place and scene of a drama by the English dra-
matic poet, Shakspeare. The Venetians surren-
dered it to the Turks in 1570, in whose possession
up to 1826 it still continued. Its present popula-
tion is supposed not to exceed 60,000, about one-
third of whom are Turks, and the remainder
Greeks, who have three bishops and one arch-
bishop. The principal towns are Pafo, or Bafa
at the west end; Massarea, and Mancorta, or Fam-
agousta, at the mouth of the Pedea towards the
east end; and Cerina, on the north coast of the
island, and Lesscossia, or Viconia, the capital in
the interior. Cyprus is still rich by nature, in
mineral, animal and vegetable productions : the
vine and olive, with a variety of other plants and
flowinrs, esculent, ambrosial and medicinal, lux-
uriate in a perfection equal to any part of the
world, and superior to most parts. The wines
possess a strong aperient quality, and require for-
ty years to duly qualify them for the palate. The
inhabitants carrymn various manufactures in silk,
cotton, and wool, and their carpets are deservedly
esteemed for the variety, richness, and beauty of
Cyr, St. a village of France, two miles from
Versailles, celebrated for an abbey founded by
Madame de Maintenon, who was the abbess till
her death in 1719.
*** There are a number of towns and villages
of this name in different parts of France, but all
Cz. For places sometimes written with Cz, see
Cs and Tseh.
Czaslau, or TohasUu, a circle of Bohemia, bor-
dering on Moravia, the N. end jetting upon th«»
Elbe ; containing about 800 square miles of terri
tory. It is intersected from east to west by the
Yasawa, which river falls info the Moldau, ana
from north to south by another river which falls
into the Elbe. Pop. about 180,000, chiefly agri-
cultural. The chief town of the same name is
seated in the north part of the circle, 8 miles S.
of the Elbe, and 45 E. N. E. of Prague. The
church has the highest tower of Bohemia. Near
this place the king of Prussia gained a victory
over the Austrians in 1742.
Czenstoehow, or Czestochow, a town of Prus-
sian Poland, near the frontier of Silicia and the
source of the Warta; near which there is a cele-
brated convent, fortified and garrisoned. It sus-
tained a seige against the Swedes in 1657, and