Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 189
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in 1796, after having for nearly eight centuries
formed a part of the Venetian republic.

Cherson, the capital of New Russia, in the gov-
ernment of Catharineslaf, founded by Catharine

II. on the north bank of the Dnieper, 10 miles be-
low the influx of the Ingulec. The church and
many of the houses are built of stone. Here is a
dock from which several men of war and mer-
chant ships have been launched; but owing to
some sand banks in the river, the naval establish-
ment has been transferred hence to Nicolayef, and
its commerce to Odessa; the population, which
at one time amounted to about 50,000, has pro-
gressively decreased to below 10,000. In 1787,
the empress made a triumphant journey to this
capital, and here met emperor Joseph II. At
this place, in 1790, the philanthropic Howard fell
a victim to his indefatigable humanity ; and a mon-
ument was erected to his memory by the Russian
admiral., Cherson is 50m. E. of Oczakow. Long.
32. 56. E. lat. 46. 38. N.

Cherlsey, a town in Surry, Eng. Here was for-
merly an abbey, of which only a part of the walls
now remain; it was the first burial place of Hen-
ry VI. who was afterward removed to Windsor.
It is seated near the Thames, over which is a
handsome bridge, 20 m. AV. by S. of London.
Pop. in 1821, 4.279.

Chesapeak, the largest and safest bay in the
United States. Its entrance is between Cape
Charles in Maryland, and Cape Henry in A'irgin-
ia. 12 m. wide. It extends 270 m. to the north;
is from 10 to 40 miles broad, and generally nine
fathoms deep; containing
several islands and
many commodious harbours. It receives the Sus-
quehannah, Potomac,
Rappahannoc, York, and
James rivers, which are all large and navigable.

Chesapeak, a village in Cecil Co. Maryland.

Chesapeak and Delaware canal, unites the two
bays of that name. It begins at Delaware city on
the Delaware, and proceeds nearly west through
Delaware and Maryland to Back Creek, a branch
of Elk river. It is 14 miles long, 60 feet wide,
and navigable for vessels drawing 10 feet. At
every half mile are recesses where the canal is
widened for the passage of vessels. Four miles
of the canal pass through a hill in some places 90
feet high, being the deepest cut upon any canal in
the world. Here a bridge of a single arch is
thrown across it. This canal was finished in 1829,
and cost 150,000 dollars per mile. It has a great
navigation.

Chesham, a town in Buckinghamshire, Eng.
with manufactures of lace and wooden ware, such
as malt-shovels, butchers’ trays, &c. It stands
in
a vale, 27 m. N. W. of London. Pop. in 1821,
a,032.

Cheshire, a county palatine of England, bound-
ed on the north by the river Mersey, which di-
vides it from Lancashire, N. E. by Yorkshire, E.
by Derbyshire, S. E. by Staffordshire, S. by Shrop-
shire, AA’. by the river Dee, which divides it from
Denbigshire and Flintshire, and N. W. by the
Irish Sea. into which projects a peninsula, 13 m.
long and six broad, formed by the mouths of the
Mersey and the Dee. This county extends 33
miles from north to south, and 42 from east to
west, without including the peninsula just men-
tioned on the west, and narrow tract of land,
which stretches between Lancashire and Derby-
shire, to Yorkshire on the N. E. Antecedent to
the invasion of Britain by the Romans, this part
of the country was occupied by a tribe called the
fivmavu; and Cheshire was constituted a coun-
ty palatine by William the Norman, who confer
red it upon his nephew, Hugh Lupus; but the
succeeding palatines, exercising an authority in
compatible with justice to other parts of the coun-
try, such as affording sanctuary, &c., Henry ATII.
who, whatever faults he might possess, is entitled
to the gratitude of the present age for having been
instrumental in breaking up the strong holds
of priest-craft, and numerous other kinds of local
tyranny, abrogated most of the privileges of this
palatinate, the forms of which, however, it still
retains. Its principal towns besides the city of
Chester, are Stockport, Macclesfield, Congleton,
and Nantwich: Stockport, at the N. E. extremi-
ty of the county, and the surrounding country,
participates largely in the cotton manufacture;
Macclesfield and Congleton are extensively enga-
ged in the silk manufacture; and Nantwich is
celebrated for its salt springs; and ship-building
is extensively carried on at the city of Chester.

In addition to the rivers Mersey and Dee, the
county of Cheshire is intersected by the rivers
Wever and Bollin, and contains several small
lakes well stored with fish; it is also intersected
by several canals, affording it a facility of com-
munication with all parts of the kingdom. The
river Dee is united by a canal of one entire level,
about 14 miles in length, from the city of Chester
to the Mersey, about 12 miles above Liverpool;
other canals diverge from the city of Chester to
Northwich, and into Wales. The Trent and Mer-
sey Canal (see
Runcorn and Preston) intersect the
heart of the county, whilst the Duke of Bridge-
water’s is carried nearly parallel with the Mersey
to Manchester, and the Peak Forest Canal inter-
sects the N. E. end of the county. The E. and
N. E. parts of the county supply abundance of
coal and various minerals; but ihe distinguishing
characteristics of the county are its salt and
cheese; the sapply of the first is inexhaustible,
and celebrated for its purity; whilst the cheese
stands unrivalled for the excellence of its quality.
The salt is produced both in a rock or solid state,
and by evaporation of the water from the numor-
ous springs. The quantity consumed in Great
Britain since 1779 has averaged about 55,000 tons
per annum, produced chiefly by evaporation; and
the quantity exported since that time has averaged
about-250,000 tons per annum, in the proportion
of about 35,000 tons of rock, and the remainder
produced by evaporation, constituting in the ag-
gregate an exchangeable money value of about
£300,000 per annum, exclusive of the tax of £30
per ton levied on that consumed in Great Britain
during the period 1806-1822, (in which latter
year the tax was repealed,) yielding in the aggre-
gate about £1,500,000 per annum. The £300,-
000 produce of the salt is principally distributed,
in the first instance, for labour, and for reparation
of machinery, buildings, and pans, used in the pro-
cess of evaporation and stoving. The total ex-
changeable money value of the cheese annually
produced in this county may be estimated at about
£750,000 per annum, and the aggregate exchan-
geable money value of all its other agricultural
productions, may be estimated at from double to
treble that amount, out of which a land rent
tax
of about £700,000 per annum is exacted. For the
relative proportion of this amount to that exacted
in other counties, as well as for territorial extent,
population, &c. &c. see
England. The south
and west part of the county it is, that is tb® most
productive in cheese, and in which the sa.- springs
abound. This part of the county is rather level



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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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