Castellane, a town of France, in the depart-
ment of Lower Alps. Near it is a salt spring,
from which the water issues in such abundance
as to turn a mill at the very source. It is seated
on the Verdon, in a hilly country, 20 m. S. E. of
Digne. Pop. about 2,000.
Castdlazo, a town of Piedmont, 7 m. S. of
Alessandria. Pop. about 4,700.
Castellanetta, a town of Naples, in Terra dOt-
ranto, 10 m. W. N. W. of Taranto.
CastelLara, a town of Italy, in the Mantuan, 6
m. N. E. of Mantua.
Castellon de Ampurias, a town of Spain, in Cat-
alonia, at the mouth of a river in the Gulf of
Rosas, 8 m. W. by S. of Rosas.
Castellon de la Plana, a town of Spain, in Va-
lencia, 28 m. S. S. W. of the city of Valencia.
It contains many vestiges of ancient grandeur,
and is still populous, having upwards of 10,000
Castdnaudary, a town of France,'in the depart-
ment of Aude, on an eminence, at the foot of
which is the grand basin of the Canal Royal. It
is 15 miles west of Carcassonne. Pop. about
Caster, a town of Germany, in the duchy of
Juliers, seated on the river Erst, 9 m. E. of
Castigleno, a town of Tuscany, in the Sien-
nese, on a lake of the same name, which commu-
nicates with the sea, and produces much salt. It
is 12 m. S. by E. of Massa.
Castiglione, a fortified town of Italy, in the
Mantuan, with a castle. It was taken by the
Austrians, in 1701; and the French defeated them
near it, in 1706, and again in 1796. It is 20 m.
N. W. of Mantua. Pop. about 4,000.
Castile, the principal and most opulent of the
kingdoms into which Spain was formerly divided.
It now forms the two provinces of Old and New
Castile; the former having been recovered from
the Moors some time before the latter.
Castile, Old, a province of Spain, bounded on
the north hy Asturias, and Biscay, east by Na-
varre and Arragon, south by New Castile, and
west by Leon, being in extreme length from north
to south about 240 miles, and 100 in mean breadth.
It is subdivided into four inferior provinces, after
the name of the four chief towns. The superficies
and population of each province, in 1810, were as
follows : viz.
Sq. leag. Inhab.
Burgos - - N. 642 470,588
Soria - - - E. 341 198,107
Segovia- - S. 290 164,007
A villa - S. W. 215 118,061
Old Castile - - 1488 950,763
The Ebro rises on the north part of Burgos, and
forms the boundary of Old Castile, on the side of
Biscay and Navarre. Several streams fall into
the Ebro, but the waters of Old Castile run chief-
ly to the westward, into the Douro. The chief
productions of this part of Spain is wood, of which
commodity about 6,000,000 lbs. are annually ex-
ported to England. King-craft and priestcraft
preclude all social exertion in this as well as every
other part of Spain.
Castile, jVetc, lies to the south of the preceding
province, and is divided into five inferior provinces
as follows : viz.
Sq. leag. Inhah.
G-uadaiaxara N. 163 121,115
Madrid - N. W. 110 228,528
Cuenca - - E. 945 294,293
Toledo - S. W. 734 370,641
La Manclia - S. 631 205,548
New Castile - - 2583 1,220,114
The Tagus, Guadiana, and Xucar, all afford tv-
New Castile the advantage of a facility of inter-
course, which, to a social community, would be
highly appreciated, but to a besotted and priest-
ridden people they are of no avail. See each of
the inferior provinces.
Castillon, a town of France,in the department
of Gironde, seated on the Dordogne, 25 m. E. of
Bordeaux. Pop. 2,600.
Castine, a seaport of the state of Maine, chief
town of Hancock county, situate on Penobscot
Bay, 65 m. W. S. W. of Machias. It has an ex-
cellent harbour and commands the entrance to the
Penobscot. Pop. 1,155. It was taken by the
British in 1814, but restored at the peace in 1815.
Long. 69. 0. W. lat. 44. 26. N.
Castle Cary, a town in Somersetshire, Eng. 12
m. S. E. of Wells, and 113 W. bv S. of London.
Castle Rising, a borough in Norfolk, Eng. The
Market is now disused, its harbour choked up,
and the castle, whence it has its name, is in ruins.
It, however, returns two members to parliament.
Pop. 343. It is seven miles N. E of Lynn, and
103 N. N. E. of London.
%* There are 24 other towns and villages in
England to the names of which Castle is pre-
Castlebar, a parish and town in the county of
Mayo, Ireland. The parish, exclusive of the towin
in 1821 contained a population of 4,169, and the
town 5,404, a considerable portion of whom are
employed in the linen manufacture. The town-
is also the seat of assize, and a chief place in the
county, having a spacious church, a handsome
court-house, gaol, and cavalry barracks. It is
situate at the east end of a small lake, 11 m. E. by
N. of West-port and 113 AV. by N. ofDublin.
* f There are about 20 other parishes, towns,
and villages, in different parts of Ireland, to the
names of which Castle is prefixed, but none of
any particular importance.
Castleton, a village on the peak of Derbyshire,
five miles north of Tideswell, Eng. It is situate
at the foot of a rock, above 250 feet high, on
which are the remains of a castle, ascribed to
William Peverel, natural son of the conqueror.
Three of the seven wonders of the peak are in its
neighbourhood; the Devils Cave, Mam Tor, and
Elden hole. The first is in a cavern in the rock
above mentioned, whose arched entrance is 42
feet high and 120 wide. It becomes narrower
as it proceeds, and the roof descends to within two
feet of the surface of a brook ; this being passed
over, another large cavern succeeds, with several
high openings in the roof. It descends again
to a second brook ; after which is a third cavern,
called Roger Rains House, because of the per-
petual dropping: the length of the whole cavern
is 617 yards. Mam Tor, a mile west of the vil-
lage, is a mountain, 1,300 feet above the level of
the valley on the top and sides of which is a
camp, supposed to be Roman : it overtops tne
whole Peak country; and the vulgar story is,
that this hill is continually crumbling, without
being diminished. Elden hole, a mile south of
Mam Tor, is a perpendicular gulf or chasm in a
limestone rock, the depth of which is unfatnom
able its sides being so very shelving and irregu