Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 162
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CAP    162    CAP



between the St. Francis and Mississippi rivers,
just above the junction of the Ohio with the Mis-
s '    sissippi, in the lat. of 37. N. It is 40 miles in

length, from north to south, and about 20 in mean
breadth. Pop. 7,430. There is a town of the
same name on the west bank of the Mississippi;
but Jackson, further north in the interior, 80 m.
S. S. E. of St. Louis, rind about 600 N. N. W. 6f
New Orleans, is the chief town.

Cape of Good Hope, a territory comprising the
whole southern extremity of Africa, discovered
by the Portuguese navigator, Bartholomew Diaz,
in 1493, who gave it the name of
Cabo Tormento-
from the boisterous weather which he met with
near it; but Emanuel, king of Portugal, on the
return of Diaz, changed its name to that of Cape
of Good Hope, from the hope he entertained of
finding a passage beyond it to India; and in this
he was not deceived, for Vasco de Gama, having
doubled this cape on the 20th November, 1497,
proceeded to India, and landed at Calicut, on the
22d of May, 1498. The Cape of Good Hope was
I    was first touched at by the Dutch in 1600, and in

1650, they established a settlement at this place
(    of which "they held undisturbed possession for

'*    nearly 150 years. The cape or promontory which

gives name to the territory is about 13 leagues
W. N. AV. of Cape Agulhas, whiph it’ the ex-
treme S. point of the African continent, and
the territory extends northward to the lat. of
|    about 30. S. and eastward from the shore of the

I    Atlantic Ocean in 18., to that of the Indian Ocean

!    in 28. of E. long, being about 560 miles from AV.

:    to E. with a mean breadth of about 200 from S. to

!    N. giving an area of about 112,000 square miles.

!    This extensive territory was taken from the

'    Dutch, by the English in 1795; but restored to

i    Holland at the peace of Amiens in 1802 ; retaken

in 1806, and confirmed to Great Britain by the
congress at Vienna in 1816, and it now forms
part of the British dominions. From the southern
extremity to the latitude of about 30, the ground
rises by three successive gradations to the height
of 5 or 6,000 feet above the level of the sea.
i    The quagga or wild ass of South Africa is found

!    in herds in this quarter, but has lately grown

scarce in the territory of the cape. The back
mountain ridge in some places rising to the height
of 9,000 to 10,000 feet. This variation in altitude
is subject to almost every variety of climate, and
the surface is as various as the climate, there be-
ing much dreary and sterile territory, some very
fine pastures, and some exceedingly fertile arablo
land. The capriciousness of the seasons, however,
is such as to render the pursuit of tillage exceed-
ingly hazardous, though, when the seasons are fa-
vourable, the produce is superabundant. The
culture of the vine seems attended with less risk,
and is likely to supersede the attention to agricul-
ture beyond what is necessary for tire subsistence
ofthe colony. The surplus produce of wine, expor-
ted during the eight years 1817 to 1824, averaged
about 4,500 pipes per annum. In 1319, a^attempt
was made to establish a settlement at    Bay,

towards the eastern extremity of the southern
coast, in the long, of 25. 42. E. about 450 miles
east of the settlement at the Hope Cape, but the
seasons in succession catting off all the crops, the
settlers were all subjected to the extreme of priva-
tion. By due attention, however, to Jhe nature
of the climate, and apphcation of the soil to pur-
poses for which it is hest adapted, the Cape terri-
i    tory in the aggregate is doubtless susceptible of

being rendered subservient to the highest degree

of comfort and enjoyment of the settlers, and re-
ciprocally so to the inhabitants of Great Britain. It
is divided into four districts; viz. the Cape, Zwel-
lendam, Stellenbosch, and Graff Reynet. The
Cape district comprises the promontory which gives
name to the territory. The promontory jets into
the Southern Ocean, at the south-west extremity.
On each side of this promontory is a bay frequent-
ed alternately' as the winds prevail; that on the
east side, in the Southern Ocean, is called False
Bay, restored to duringthe prevalence of north and
north-west winds, and that on the west side, in
the Atlantic Ocean, is called Table Bay, which
affords tolerable shelter during the prevalence of
south and south-east winds. They are, however,
both destitute of convenient harbours. There are
two other bays north oi Table Bay ; Saldanha, in
the lat. of 33. 7. S. and St. Helens in 32. 40. both
of which have more convenient harbours than eith-
er of the other two ; but, being deficient in fresh
water, they are not much frequented. On the
shore of Table Bay, in the lat. of 33. 56. S. and

18. 28. E. long, is the chief town of the colony,
Cape-town, rising in the midst of a desert,
surrounded by hlack and dreary mountains. To
the south-east of the town are some vineyards,
which yield the famous wine called Constantia.
The storehouses built by the Dutch East India
Company are situate next the water, and the pri-
vate buildings lie beyond them, on a gentle ascent
toward the mountains. The castle, or principal
fort, which commands the road, is on the east side ;
and another strong fort, called Amsterdam fort, is
on the west side. The streets are broad and reg-
ular; and the houses, in general, are built of
stone, and white-washed. There are barracks
for 2,000 men, huilt on one side of a spacious plain,
which serves for a parade. There are two other
large squares, in one of which the market is held,
and the other serves to assemble the numerous
waggons and vehicles bringing in the produce
from the country. There is another large building
erected by the Dutch for a marine hospital, and a
house for the accomodation of the government
slaves : the government house, a town hall, and
a Calvinist and Lutheran church, constitute the
remainder of the public buildings. The popula-
tion in 1826 amounted to about 20,000, more than
one-half of whom were Hottentots, Negro and
Malay slaves, and people of colour. The Table
Mountain, so called from the flatness of its main
summit, rises from immediately behind the town
to the height*of 3,592 feet above the level of the
sea, having a collateral peak on the east 3,315 feet
in height, and another on the west 2,160 feet. The
profitable productions of the colony, taken as a
whole, are wine, grain, all the European and most
of the tropicalfruits, vegetables of every descrip-
tion, cattle, and sheep. At the foot of the Table
Mountain are considerable plantations of the pro-
tea argentea, or silver tree (a species of the protea
peculiar to this spot,) the stone pine, and the
white poplar. Avenues of oak adorn the country
houses, and this tree grows rapidly throughout the
colony, but rarely to any perfection as timber. It
is constantly cut down,with the rest of the few for-
est trees of the Cape, for fuel, which is so scarce that
most families in decent circumstances keep a
slave employed entirely in collecting it. On the
eastern side of the mountains that run northward
from the Cape, and at the southern foot of the
Zwartzberg or Black Mountains, are some good
pasture farms, and whole plains of the common
aloe, which forms a considerable article of trade


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