Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 160
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CAN    160    CAN

dicinal springs. It is seated on the Neckar, three
m. N. E. of Stuttgard.

Cantal, an interior department in the south of
France, including part of the late province of
Auvergne. It is so called from a mountain, near
the centre of the department, whose summit is
always covered with snow. The capital is St.
Flour. Pop. about 250,000.

Cantazaro, a town of Naples, in Calabria Cite-
riore, near the sea, 26 m. S. W. of St. Severino.

Canterbury, a city of Kent, Eng. capital of the
county, and the see of an archbishop, who is pri-
mate of all England. It was the Durovernum
of the Romans, and founded before the Christian
era. The cathedral, a large structure, was once
famous for the shrine of Thomas a Becket, a tur-
bulent priest, who was murdered here in 1170,
and afterwards made a saint. In this cathedral
are interred Henry IV. and Edward the Black
Prince. The city has likewise 14 parish church-
es ; the remains of many Roman antiquities;
and an ancient castle, with walls and a deep
ditch ; and a grammar-school founded by Henry
VIII. It is a county of ifaelf, governed by a may-
or ; and is noted for excel lee I brawn. The adja-
cent country produces abundance of hops. It is
seated on the river Stour, 56 m. E. S. E. of Lon-
don, on the high road to Dover, from which it is
distant 17 m. Pop. in 1821,12,754.

Canterbury, ph. Merrimack Co. N. H. 9 m. from
Concord. Pop. 1,663. Heie is a village of Sha-

Canterbury, ph. Windhi n Co. Conn. 40 m. E.
Hartford. Pop. 1,881. Here are some manufac-
tories of cotton and woo leu. Also a town in Kent
Co. Del.

Canth, a town of Silesia, on the river Weistritz,
15 m. S. AV. of Breslau.

Cantin, Cape, a promontory of the Atlantic
Ocean, on the coast of Morocco. Long. 9. 5. AV.
lat. 32. 33. N.

Canton, a city, seaport, and capital of Quang-
tong, the most southern province of China, and
the only port in that vast empire with which Eu-
ropeans are permitted to hold any intercourse ; it
is finely situated at the head of a bay, into which
flow two large rivers, one from the westward,
which by numerous collateral branches intersects
all the southern part of the empire, and the other
from the north, which, by a portage of only one
day’s journey, communicates with the great chain
of inland waters that intersects every other pro-
vince. These rivers afford a facility of conveyance
by water, which renders Canton peculiarly well
adapted for the great outport of the empire. The
harbour is very commodious, and being sheltered
by several small islands, it affords secure moor-
ings for the innumerable barks or junks which
navigate the inland watei s ; all the foreign ships
an^jor several miles distant from the town, not
on accoqrft of the incapac ity of the harbour to ac
commodfife them, but from the peculiarly jealou3
policy of the Chinese, which seems to dread noth-
ing so much as sociality of intercourse. Canton
consists of three towns, divided by high walls, but
f so conjoined as to form almost a regular square.
The streets are long and straight, paved with flag-
stones/and adorned with triumphal arches. The
houses in general have only one floor, built of
earth or brick, some of them fantastically colour-
ed, and covered with tiles. Hie better class of
people are carried about in chairs; but the com-
mon sort walk barefooted and bareheaded. At the
end of every street is a harrier, which is shut every

evening, as well as the gates of the city. The Eu
ropeans and Americans occupy a range of build-
ings termed the factories, fronting a spacious quay
along the bank of the harbour, without the city ,
and no foreigner is permitted to enter without
the special permission of the viceroy, which is sel-
dom obtained.

There are 40,000 sampans or hoa.ts upon the
river, which contains above 100,000 people who
live constantly upon the water. The wall around
the city is 4 or 5 miles in extent. The city con-
tains vast numbers of triumphal arches and tem-
ples richly adorned with statues. The streets
are crowded with passengers to such a degree that
it is difficult to get along. The European or Amer-
ican visiter is struck with the variety and oddity
of the different articles offered for sale in the
streets and markets. If he is in quest of a dainty
morsel of fresh meat he may here purchase a fine
lot of rats, cats and puppies, which the Chinese

esteem particularly nice for making pies ! The
foreign trade of Canton resolves itself into a mo-
nopoly more peculiar and oppressive than any
where else exists, (except the Bank of England
and East India Company in London) it is vested .
in 12 persons precisely on the same principle as
the 12 Jews are permitted to act as brokers in
the city of London, each paying a large premium
for the privilege of trading, or in other words, as
far as the principle applies in China, for the priv-
ilege of extorting from and oppressing the produ-
cers of the commodities in whidh they trade.
There is, however, this difference in China; whilst
each of the 12. individuals all trade on separate
account, they are collectively, amenable, as well
to foreigners as the government, for any default
or mulct imposed upon any one or more of them
individually; whilst each of the Jew brokers of
London is only responsible for his own acts. In
addition to the external commerce of Canton, it
also appears to be the seat of almost every branch
of manufacture, more especially of silks and
household gods; and as from the circumstance of
there being no
public winrship in China, every
house has its own collection of idols, the manu-
facture of these forms one of the most important
branches of occupation. The main article of ex-
port from Canton is tea, which since 1798, to
England alone, has averaged about 25 millions of
lbs., whilst to America and other parts (since
1815 more especially) it has been gradually in-.
creasing, making an aggregate average quantity,
annually exported at the period of 1826, of about
40 millions of lbs. The other principal articles
exported to England are raw silk and nankeens,

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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