enbuttel, then dividing the Bishopric of Hildes-
heim from North Calenbergon the east, and after-
wards intersects the north part of North Calen-
berg. The Weser also intersects the south part
of N. Calenberg from south-east to north-west,
the chief towns being Hanover, Neustadt, and
Hamel n. The aggregate extent of the surface
may be estimated at about 1,700 square miles, and
the population at 220.000. The soil is generally
fertile, and under social and reciprocal arrange-
ments, Calenberg might be made to yield a sur-
plus produce sufficient to command an abundance
of tropical and other luxuries, the consumption of
which has hitherto been very limited.
Calhuco, a town at the south extremity of
Araucan, opposite the north end of the Isle of
Chiloe, in the South Pacific Ocean, inhabited by
Spaniards, Mestozos, and Indians, 180 m. S. of
Valdivia. Long. 73. 37. AV. lat. 41. 40. S.
Cali, a city of Colombia, in the valley of Popa-
yan, on the west bank of the river Cauca. The
governor of the province generally resides here.
It is 00 m. E. of .Bonaventura, and 200 W. by S.
of St. Fe. Long. 77. 5. W. lat. 3.15. N.
^ Calicut, a city of Hindoostan, capital of a pro-
vince of the same name, on the coast of Malabar.
It was the first Indian port visited by European
shipping ; being discovered by the Portuguese, in
1498. Here is a manufacture of plain cotton
goods; and much salt is made by the natural
evaporation of the sea water. The principal ex-
ports are cocoa and betel nuts, black pepper, gin-
ger, and turmeric. It is seated at the mouth of a
river, 110 m. S. AV. of Seringapatam, and 130 S.
S. E. of Mangalore. Long. 75. 52. E. lat. 11.12,
N. It was formerly much more considerable,
having been much encroached upon by the sea.
California, a Dromontory, in the Pacific Ocean,
separated from the west coast of North America
by the Vermilion sea, or Gulf of California; ex-
tending N. AV. from Cape St. Lucar, in the lat. of
22. 44. to lat. 33. N. being about 50 miles in aver-
age breadth. It was discovered by Cortez, in
153G; and is said to have been visited bv Sir
Francis Drake, in 1578. Toward the close of the
seventeenth century, the Jesuits formed several
settlements here, and endeavoured to govern the
natives with the same policy and authority that
they exercised in their missions in Paraguay.
They seem studiously to have depreciated the
climate and soil of the country; but on their ex-
pulsion from the Spanish dominions, the court ap-
pointed Don Joseph Galvez to visit this peninsula.
His account of the country "was favourable ; he
found the pearl fishery on its coast to be valuable,
and he discovered mines of gold of a very promis-
ing appearance. Divers nations or tribes inhabit
the country, without acknowledging any chief.
Each father is a prince over his own family;
but his power ceases when the children are able
to provide for themselves. Each tribe, neverthe-
less, has persons appointed, who call assemblies
to divide the productions ot the earth, regulate
the fisheries, and march at their head when en-
gaged in war. AVant of provision obliges^ them
often to change their abodes; and in severe win-
ters they retire into caves. A girdle and piece
of linen round the body, some ornaments for the
head, and a chain of pearls, serve them for dress
and finery. Those who live toward the north,
where they have no pearls, dress their heads with
shells. The women commonlv wear a kind of
.ong robe, made of leaves of palms; though some
wear nothing but a girdle. A range of mountains
runs parallel with the coast, its whole exten
rising in some places to the height of about 4,700
feet. The soil in many places is excellent; and it
is reported that vines grow naturally in the moun-
tains, and that the Jesuits, when they resided here,
made abundance of wine, in taste approaching to
that of Maderia. The chief town is St. Joseph,
about 25 m. N. E. of Cape St. Lucas. The por i-
lation of the whole territory is supposed re „ to
California, New, is an extension of territory
along the coast, north of the promontory of Cali-
fornia to the lat. of about 40. N. comprising the
greater pari of the coast formerly called New Al-
bion. The same mountain ridge which intersects
the promontory continues to run nortn, parallel
with the coast, at a distance of thirty to fifty miles.
The Jesuits, who extended themselves in this di
rection, found the soil somewhat more congenial
for the general purposes of culture, and founded
about twenty settlements upon and between the
coast and the mountain ridge, each settlement
dedicated to some saint of their holy order. The
four principal settlements on the coast are St. Die-
go, in the lat. of 32.42.; La Furissima, in 34. 32.;
St. Carlos de Monterey, in 36. 36.; and St. Fran
cisco, in 37. 48. N. The total population of this
district is estimated at about 16,000.
Calix, a town of Sweden, in West Bothina, on
a river of the same name, near its entrance into
the gulf of Bothnia, 22 m. W. of Tornea,
Callah, a town of Algiers, in the province of
Mascara, which has a considerable trade, and the
greatest market for carpets in the country. It is
40 m. E. of Oran.
Callan, a town of Ireland, in the county of Kil
kenny, on the frontier of Tipperary, 7 m. S. W
of the city of Kilkenny, and 65 from Dublin
Pop. in 1821, 5,673.
Callander, a town of Scotland, in Perthshire
with a considerable manufacture of muslin ; seat-
ed on the river Teath, 30 m. W. S. AV. of Perth.
Callao, a seaport of Peru, with the best harbour
on the coast, and a large and safe roadstead de-
fended by the islands of Callao and St. Lawrence.
In the port every commodity is to be procured
that vessels may be in need of. The town was
almost totally destroyed by an earthquake, in
1746. It is seated on a river of the same name,
5 m. W. of Lima, of which it is the port. Long.
76. 58. W. lat. 12. 2. S.
Callaway, a county of Kentucky. Pop. 5,159.
Wadesborough in the chief town.
Calle, a town of Algiers, in the province ol
Constantina, where the French have a factory es-
tablished for a coral fishery, and trade for grain,
wool, leather, and wax. It stands on a rock, al-
most surrounded by the sea, 36 m. E. of Bona.
Callinger, a fortified town of Hindoostan, in
the province of Allahabad, formerly capital of
Bundelcund. It was ceded by the Mahrattas to
the English in 1793. It is 20 m. N. of the Dia-
mond Mines of Punuah, and 150 W. by S. of
Callington, a borough in Cornwall, Eng. with
a manufacture of cloth; situate on the Lynher,
12 m. S. ef Launceston, and 216 W. by S. of
London. It returns two members to parliament
Pop. in 1821, 1,321.
Calloma, or Caillomo, a town of Peru, celebrat
ed for its silver mines, 50 m. N. by E. of Arequipa,
and 170 S. of Cuzco.
Calmar, a strong seaport of Sweden, capital of