Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 147
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which is the source of the Aven, and 4,050 feet
above the level of the sea. Its sides clothed with
firs, and its top generally covered with snow. It
is famous for beautiful rock-crystals, .inch es-
teemed by lapidaries. About 30 m. E. of Fort
Augustus.

Cairo, or Grand Cairo, a large city, capital of
Egypt. It consists of three towns, about a mile
apart: Old Cairo, New Cairo, and the port term-
ed Bulac. The population is estimated at 300.000.
Old Cairo is now reduced to a small place. New
Cairo is a mile from the river, and seven miles
in circumference. The streets are narrow; and
the fin est houses are built round a court, in which
they make the best, appearance, having few
or no windows next to the street. The castle
stands on a steeo rock, and is surrounded by
thick walls, on w hich are strong towers. Joseph’s
Well, made by a vizier of that, name, about the
year 1100, is the most curious part of the Castle :
it is sank in the rock 230 feet deep and 40 in cir-
cumference, with a staircase carried round ; and
a machine, turned by oxen, raises the water
(which comes from the Nile) into a reservoir,
whence it is again raised by a similar machine.
There are many other reservoirs for water; and
numerous bazaars, where each trade has its allot-
ted quarter. There are several public bagnios,
verv handsome within, and used as places of
refreshment and diversion, especially for the
women. who go there twice a week: but the
wives of great men hare baths at home. The
wom“n have greater liberty here ’ban in anv part
of the Turkish empire; and on Fridiv
a mosque
without the wall is frequented bv them as
a pil-
grimage of pleasure. The Calish. a canal which
conveys the waters of the Nile into the citv. is 20
feet broad, and has houses on each side of it. As
soon as the water begins to rise, they close the
mouth of the canal with earth, and place a mark,
to show the time when this and all other canals
in the kingdom are to be opened, which is done
with great solemnity. There are not less than
300 mosques in Cairo, the lofty minarets of which
present a very picturesque appearance. It was a
pface of verv great trade before the discovery of
the Cape of Good Hope ; and is still the centre
of that of Eastern Africa. The chief manufac-
tures are sugar, sal ammoniac, glass lamps, salt-
p“*rc. gunpowder, red and yellow leather, and
linen made ofthe fine Egyptian flax. This city
w->* t.ihen by the French, under Bonaparte, in
!T.'~. and retaken bv the British in 1801. It
J? on the east bank of the Nile, about 120 m.
S. E Alexandria, and about, the same distance from
•vh of th<* two mouths of the river at Rosetta
and Dnkth. Lat. 30. 2. N. and 31. 20. ofE. long.

Ci'~9. a town of Piedmont, 25 miles, west of
Genoa. Tt was the scene of a sanguinary battle
betwe»n the French and Austrians in 1794, and in
17:>i was taken bv the French. Pop. about 4,000.

Cairn, p.t. Green Co. N. Y. 35 m. S. AV. Al-
bany. Pop. 2.012. Also 2 towns in Ten. and Ohio.

Ca'roan. or Kaincan, an interior town of the
kingdom of Tunis, and next to the city of Tunis
for trade and
number of inhabitants. It is situate
near a sandv desert,
where are found many ves-
tiges of former magnificence, and on the river
Magrida, about GO m. S. E. of Tunis, and a few
miles west of
Susa.

Caistor, a town in Lincolnshire, Eng. Near it
are the remains of a monastery, and many Roman
vestiges. It is 12 m. S. W. of Grimsby, and 156
N. of London. Pop in 1821,1,253.

*** There are 2 other towns named Caistor, in
the county of Norfolk.

Caithness-shire, a county at the S. E. extremity
of Scotland, 35 miles long and 20 broad ; bound-
ed on the north by Pentland Frith, which divides
it from the Orkneys, east and south-east by the
German Ocean, and west by Southerlandshire.
The south angle is occupied by mountains; and
a vast ridge of hills forms the south-west bounda-
ry,ending in a promontory called the Ord of Caith-
ness, which runs out into the sea, in the lat. of

58.10. N. The rest of the county may be deem-
ed an immense morass, interspersed with some
fruitful spots, produeingoats andbarley, and others
affording pasture for sheep and black cattle. Its
other chief products are butter, cheese, yarn,
skins, feathers and kelp. It sends a member to
parliament alternately with Buteshire. English
is chiefly spoken on the coast, but in the high-
lands the Gaelic prevails. Thurso on the north,
and AVick on the east coast, are the chief towns.

Cajann. or Kajana, one of the seven principal
towns of East Bothinia,
which see.

Cajazzo.a town of Naples, 25 miles north of
the citv of Naples.

Calabar, Old and, New, a territory at the east-
ern extremity of the coast of Guinea on the wrest
coast of North Africa. Since the restriction of
the slave trade to the south of the Equator, this
district has carried on a more extensive trade in
palm oil and bar wood, and some elephants’ teeth,
ihan any other part of the coast. The town of
New Calabar is situate at the mouth of a river
ofthe same name, in the lat. of 4. 10. N. and 6.
42.
of E. long. Dukes Town, the chief town of
Old Calabar, is situate at the mouth of another
river
of the same name, falling into a bay, about
80 m. E. by N. of New Calabar.

Cafabazo, or Calahaco, an interior town of Co
lombia about 150 miles south of Caracas, contain
ing about 5,000 inhabitants.

Calabria, a promontory and province of Naples,
forming the foot and southern extremity of Italy,
extending from 37. 53. to 40. 5. of North lat. and
being about 40 m. in mean breadth, between the
long, of 15. 40. and 17. 30. E. A ridge of mountains,
the Apennines, intersects the whole territory from
north to south, and numerous streams fall into
the sea on both coasts. It gives the title of Duke
to the eldest son. of the king of Naples. It is di-
vided into twin parts ; Citra. north, bordering on
the Basilicata, contains about 350.000 inhabitants,
and Ultra, south, containing about, 400,000. This
country abounds in excellent fruit, corn, wine,
oil, silk, cotton, and wool. In 1783, a great part of
Calabria Ultra. a.s well as of Sicily, was destroyed
by one of the most terrible earthquakes on rec-
ord : besides the destruction of many towins, vil-
lages, and farms, above 40,000 people perished by
this calamity. The principal towns are Bova, at
the south extremity, Reggio, Rosarno, St. Eufe-
mia, Castiglione, and Paula, on the west; and
Rossano. Cariato, Catanzaro, and Squillace on the
east coast, and in the interior, Cossano. Bisagna-
no, Cosenza, (the capital) Policastro, Mileto, and
Oppido.

Calahorra, an episcopal town of Spain, in Old
Castile, on the side of a hill, which extends to the
Ebro, 90 m. E. of Burgos. It was the birth-p.ace
of Quintilian. Pop. about 4,300.

Calais, a seaport of France, in the department
of
Pas de Calais, with a citadel. It was taken by
Edw. III. of England, in 1347, after a siege of
more than 11 months, which
has given rise to some








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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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