Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 145
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W. of Flint, and 212 N. W. of London. Pop. 952.

Caff a, or Theodosia, the largest town of the Cri-
mea, with an excellent road and hah ur. It was
taken, in 1206, by the Genoese, who made it one
of the most flourishing towns in 1 lie east of Eu-
rope. It was taken from them by the Venetians,
in 1297, but soon recovered ; however, in 1474,
the Tartars, assisted by the Turks, finally expel-
led them. It was the last post in the Crimea of
which the Genoese retained the sovereignty.
Catfa was the Theodosia ofthe ancients ; a name
which has been restored to it since the Russians
became possessed of the Crimea, in 1770. it con-
tains about 20,000 inhabitants, and is constantly
well garrisoned. The trade consists in wax, furs,
lambskins, leather, horses, and female slaves;
most of the latter are brought from Circassia, and
are here sold at from 400 to £800 each, in propor-
tion to their charms. Caffa is seated on a bay of
the Black Sea, at the foot of some high mountains,
65 m. E. by N. of Sympheropol, and 130 S. E. of
Precop. Long. 35. 20. E. lat. 40. 0. N.

Caffy, Strait of, the ancient Cimmerian Bos-
phorus, a strait that forms the communication be-
tween the Black Sea and the sea of Asoph, and a
separation between Europe and Asia.

Caffristin, or Kettore, a mountainous country of
Asia, iving between the north-east part of Persia
and Tartary. The valleys are inhabited by vari-
ous independent tribes possessing manners, and
speaking a language peculiar to themselves, but
of whicn very little is known.

Caffraria, or Kr.ffraria, a country on the east
•cast of South Africa, extending from the latitude
of about 30. S. to the Great Fish River, in the
latitude of about 34., which divides it from the
country of the Hottentots, its western boundaries
are not ascertained. The Caffres are tall and well
proportioned ; and, in general, evince great cour-
age in attacking lions and other beasts of prey.
Their skin is a jet black, their teeth white as ivo-
ry, and their eyes large. The clothing of both

sexes is the same, consisting entirely of the hides
of oxen, which are as pliant as cloth. The men
wear tails of different animals tied round their
thighs ? pieces of brass in their hair, and large
ivory rings on their arms ; they are adorned also
with the hair of lions, and feathers fastened on
their heads, with many other fantastical orna-
ments. They are fond of dogs; and have great
pride in their cattle, which pay the most perfect
obedience to their voice. Their exercise is hunt-
ing, fighting, or danging. They are expert in
throwing lances, and, in time of war, use shields
made of the hides of oxen. They sometimes make
incursions into the English territories of the Cape
of Good Hope. The women are employed in the
cultivation of their gardens and com. They raise
several vegetables, which are not indigenous to
the country,'
a& tobacco, wate -melons, kidney

beans, and hemp. Their huts are higher and
more commodious than those of the Hottentots,
and their lands more fertile, but their oxen, and
almost all their animals, are much smaller. In-
dustry is the leading trait in the character of the
Caffres, who are distinguished from their neigh-
bours to the south by their fondness for agriculture
They have a high opinion of the Supreme Being,
and of his power; they believe in a future state
of rewards and punishments; but think that the
world had no beginning, and will be everlasting.
They have no sacred ceremonies, and consequent-
ly no priests; but they have a kind of conjurers
whom they greatly revere. They are governed
by an hereditary king, whose power is very limit-
ed ; but, being permitted to take as many wives
as he pleases, he has a larger portion of lands to
cultivate, and a greater number of cattle to tend
and feed. The distance of the different hordes
makes it necessary that they should have inferior
chiefs, who are appointed by the king.

One of the most remarkable animals of this re
gion is the spring-bok a species of antelope about
two feet and a half in height, of a pale yellowish
colour, with a stripe of wljite, bordered by dark
brown extending from the tail half way up the
back and a similar stripe on each side from the
shoulders to the haunches ; the belly is of a snow-
white. The name of spring-bok was given it by
the Dutch settlers of the Cape of Good Hope
from the prodigious leaps which this animal takes
when startled. When thus alarmed, it has the
power of extending the white space about the tail
into the form of a circle, which returns to its lin-
ear form when the animal is tranquil. When pur-
sued. it is pleasing and curious to see the whole
herd leaping to a considerable height over each
other’s heads; and they will sometimes take three
or four leaps successively- In this situation they
seem suspended in the air, looking over their
shoujders at their pursuers, and forming the radi-
us of the white part about the tail in a most beau-
tiful manner. They are extremely swift, and it
must be a good horse that can overtake them.
They migrate annually from the interior of. the
country in small herds, and continue near the Cape
for two or three months, and then retreat towards
the north in herds of many thousands, covering
the great plains for several hours in their passage.

They are attended in these migrations by num-
bers of lions, hyffirias, and other wild beasts of
prey, which commit great devastation among
them. They also make periodical migrations
in seven or eight years, in herds of many thous-
ands, from the north, being probably compelled to
leave their haunts in the Terra de Natal by the
excessive drought of that region, where it some-
times happens that not a drop of rain falls for two
or three years. In these migrations they spread
over the whole country of Caffraria, which they
desolate, not leaving a blade of grass. Their flesh
is excellent; and, with other antelopes, they fur-
nish the venison of the Cape.

Thompson, in his travels in Southern Africa
gives the following account of these animals.
“ I passed through prodigious flocks of spring
boks, spread over the plains as far as the eye
could reach : the number it is impossible to esti-
mate with any nicety, but I suppose I saw at
least 100,000 in the course of fifty miles. They
were migrating from the great desert towards the
Colony. The colonists, as I oame along, inquir-
ed anxiously if I had seen many spring-boks, and

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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