Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 143
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CAD    143    CAD

lackered ware, as in China. It is seated on the
river Hoti, 80 m. from the gulf of Tonquin. Long.
105. 11. E. lat. 21.10. N.

Cacheo, a town of the kingdom of Cumbo, on
the west coast of North Africa, seated on the riv-
er Cacheo, or St. Domingo, 50 miles from its
mouth, between the Gambia and Rio Grande. It
is subject to the Portuguese, who have three forts,
and formerly carried on a great trade in wax and
slaves. Long. 14. 55. E. lat. 12. 6. N.

Cachoiro, a town of Brazil, in the government
of Bahia. It is the mart for the northern gold
mines, and stands on a small river, 42 m. N. W.
of St. Salvador.

Cacongo, a town of the kingdom of Loango, on
the west coast of South Africa, seated near the
mouth of a river, 40 m. S. S. E. of Loango.

Caeorla, a town of Spain, situate between two
mountains on the frontiers of La Mancha, Murcia,
and Granada, 15m.E. N. E. of Ubeda.

Cadenae, a town of France, in the department
of Mouths of the Rhone, 28 m. S. E. of Avignon.

Cadenae, a town of France in the department
of Lot, on the river Lot, 27 m. E. N. E. of Cahors.

Coder Idris, a mountain of Wales, in Merio-
nethshire, to the south of Dolgelly. The perpen-
dicular height of which is 2,914 feet above the
level of the sea; and on it are several lakes
abounding in fish.

CadiarT a town of Spain, in Granada, 23 m. S.
£. of Granada.

Cadillac, a town of France, in the department
of Gironde, with a castle, seated on the east bank
of the Garonne, 15 m. S. E. of Bordeaux.

Cadiz, a celebrated city and seaport of Spain in
Andalusia, called hy the Phoenicians, who found-
ed it,
Gadir, a fence or fenced place, and by the
Arabs
Gezira Cades, is the richest trading port of
Spain, and one of its finest cities. It stands on
the western extremity of a tongue of land project-
ing from the isle of Leon, which on its south-east
side was formerly connected with the main land
hy a bridge. The town is surrounded with a wall
and irregular bastions, adapted to the variations of
the ground. On the south side there are steep
acclivities which render it inaccessible, and the
landing-place on the north is defended by sand-
banks and sunken rocks. On the south-west point
is a range of rocks, partly covered at high water;

• and the point of St. Sebastian is defended bra
strong fort. At the neck of the isthmus, where it
is most accessible, every precaution has been
taken to secure it against hostile attacks; and it
niav, therefore, be regarded as almost impregna-
ble. Its snacious bay forms an excellent haven,
and is divided into two harbours communicating
with each other ; the one called the bay of Cadiz,
the other that of Puntales. The entrance to
each, as well as the town and port generally, are
commanded by the forts of St. Catherine, St. Se-
bastian. Chiciano, Matagorda, Puntales, and Fort
Luis. The hay of Cadiz is the appointed resort
of merchant vessels: that of the Puntales is re-
served for Spanish men of war, and merchantmen
trading with America; a passage into it is not
permitted ta ships of foreign nations. The en-
trance to this inner harbour is commanded on one
side by the fort of
Puntales, an isle formed by the
Cortadura, and on the other by the fort of Mata-
gorda. The Trocadero is
an isle formed by the
bay of Cadiz and the
channel leading from Mata-
gorda to Puerto Real.
These, and other advan-
tages of nature and
art, render Cadiz the most
complete maritime
station in Eorope, while its
position qualifies it as an emporium for the com
merce of both hemispheres.. The city is an epis-
copal see, including, however, only twenty-eight
parishes; its cathedral is ancient, and very mag-
nificent : there are also thirteen convents, an
academy of the fine arts, a nautical and mathe-
matical school, an excellent observatory, a naval
and military asylum, a chirurgical institute, a
botanic garden, a theatre, and thirteen hospitals,
Since the year 1786, Cadiz has been much en-
larged and improved. In 1808, the number of
houses was 8,000, and that of the inhabitants, in-
cluding many English and Germans, 75,000 ; but
at the last census the population had sunk to

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53,000,—a diminution in a great measure ascriba-
ble to the loss of trade with the colonies. On the
isthmus, near the town, are important saltworks,
and some vineyards which produce" good wine.
There is a considerable tunny fishery. Among
the inconveniences of Cadiz, that which is most
severely felt by foreigners is the want of good
spring water. Each house, indeed, has its cis-
tern ; but the fresh water chiefly in request is
brought in casks across the bay from Port St.
Mary’s. The streets are straight, and in general
well paved and lighted, but in some parts narrow.
The houses, with their small Windows and pro-
jecting slate roofs, have rather a gloomy appear-
ance, notwithstanding their whitened walls. The
principal square is that of St. Antonio. A fa-
vourite luxury, during the summer heats here, is
winter cooled with snow brought from the distant
mountains of Ronda.

When Cadiz had become the centre of the com-
mercial intercourse between Spain and the Indies,
all the maritime nations of Europe established
relations with it by means of resident consuls,
agents, and correspondents. In 1795, there were
110 great commercial houses ; and about the same
period, or a few years previous, the imports
amounted to 100 millions of reals, and the exports
to' 270 millions. Jn 1804, the number of vessels
that entered the port was 1,386. The battle of
Trafalgar, in the following year, ruined the Span-
ish navy; and the decline of Cadiz was accele-
rated by the usurpation of Bonaparte, which
afforded tire South American states an opportuni-
ty to declare their independence and open a direct
intercourse with Europe.

Few seaports can boast of higher antiquity. In
the sea, near the isle of San Pedro, are still "to be •
traced the ruins of the temple of Hercules and of
the ancient Gades. The port was successively
occupied by the Tyrians, the Carthaginians, and
the Romans, who preserved to it the name of
Gades. The Arabs, after their invasion of Spain,
made themselves masters of the town, and held it
until 1262, when it wras taken from them by the
Spaniards. In 1696, it was plundered and burnt
by the English, after which it was rebuilt and
more strongly fortified. During the wars with
England it was frequently blockaded, and once
bombarded, but without success* From 1808, un
til the return of Ferdinand VII., it was the rally
ing point of Spanish loyalty; and, on the advance
of the French troops into Andalusia, the supreme
junta adopted strenuous measures for its defence,
and obtained powerful reinforcements from Gib-
raltar and Portugal. The French laid siege to
Cadiz on the 6th of February, 1810, and, notwith-
standing a determined fire from the ships, forts
and floating batteries, seized several strong points
along the bay, and in particular the fort of Mata-
gorda, whence they determined to bombard the.








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