Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 133
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county, North Carolina. The south-west corner
jets upon the Roanoke river. Pop. 15,770. Law-
renceville is the chief town.

Brunswick, a maritime and frontier county at
the south extremity of North Carolina. It is
bounded on the north and east by Cape Fear Riv-
er. It is a swampy and desolate district. Pop.
0,523. Smithville, near the mouth of Cape Fear
River, 255 m. S. by E. of Raleigh, is the chief
town. It has also a town of the same name about
30 miles up the river.

Brunswick, a seaport of the state of Geo., chief
town of Glynn county, with a safe harbour, capa-
ble of containing a numerous fleet of men of war.
It
L seated in a fertile country, at the mouth of
Turtle River, in St. Simon Sound, 60 m. S. S.
W. of Savannah, and 10 S. of Darien Long. 81.

0. W. lat. 31. 10. N.

Bruntjs Isle, an island off the S. E. point of
Van Dienian’s Land, about 30 m. in length, in-
dented by Adventure Bay.

Bruree, a parish in the county of Limerick,
Ireland. Pop. in 1821, 4,038. A small village of
the same name, within the parish, 16 m. S of Lim-
erick, was formerly celebrated as the half yearly
rendezvous of the Irish bards ; but avarice and
oppression have long since subdued all social in-
tercourse among the native Irish; and the min-
strel has not sounded at Bruree since 1746.

Br ;s.-r s. or Bruxelles, cue of the chief cities
of Belgium. i:i South Brabant, and formerly the
capitii of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It
stands on a gentle eminence on the banks of the
Senne. a small stream flowing into the Scheldt,
fts existence can be traced to a very remote period,
and the simplicity of its origin forms a striking
contrast with its subsequent splendour. Early in
the seventh century, St. Gerv, bishop of Cam-
bray, erected a small chapel in one of the islands
formed by the Senne, and there preached the
gospel to the surrounding peasantry. The beau-
ty of the situation*- and the piety and eloquence
of the preacher, attracted many to the spot; their
united numbers soon formed a large village,
which increased so, that in the year 990 it could
boast of a market and a castle. In process of
time it became the favourite residence of the
dukes of Brabant, and of the Austrian governors
who succeeded them, and even acquired the title
of " the ornament of the Netherlands.” In the
rear 1555, it was chosen by the emperor Charles

V. as the place in which he made a formal resig-
n el of his dominions to his son, afterwards
Pn.iio II.: the chair in which he sat, on that me-
morable occasion, is still religiously preserved.
Diring the wars that raged in Europe in the
seveafoenth and eighteenth centuries, and of
which the Netherlands were the principal theatre,
Brussels underwent its share of suffering; being
occupied, in turn, by each of the contending
lowers. In 1695 it was bombarded by marshal
Villen*v; when fourteen churches, and upwards
of    houses, were destroyed. After the cele-

brated battle of Ramillies, its keys were surren-
dered to the duke of Marlborough. It was taken
by the French under marshal Saxe in 1746, but
restored to its farmer master at the peace of Aix-
la-Chapelle. During the revolutionary war it
again fell into the hands of the French, to whom
it remained subject till the general peace of Eu-
rope in 1814. While under their government,
it was made the seat of a court of criminal and
special justice, a chamber and tribunal of com-
merce, and a court
of appeal for five departments.

During the revolution of 1830. it was the scene
of the most bloody battles between the inhabi-
tants and the Dutch troops. The 24th, 25th and
26th of October were days of perpetual and terri-
ble carnage in the streets of the city. The
Dutch were driven out of Brussels on the 27th
with the loss of 3,000 men.

Brussels has always been eminent as a manu
facturing town; the fabric of lace, which is in
high estimation every where, gives employment
to upwards of 10,000 individuals. Its camlets,
and still more its carpets, are much admired, and
command high prices. It is also celebrated for
the manufacture of carriages, which are consider-
ed to be superior to those of London and Paris in
cheapness and elegance. Neither, although in
an island position, is it without a consider-
able share of commerce, not only with the sur-
rounding parts, but with foreign countries. It
owes this great advantage to its numerous canals,
by which it communicates with the Scheldt. The
principal of these is that leading to Antwerp,
constructed about the year 1560, at an expense of
£ 170,000 sterling. It is 110 feet above the level
of the sea.

The present flourishing condition of the city*
is also owing to the great influx of foreigners,
particularly French and English. To the latter
it has become peculiarly attractive of late years,
from its contiguity to the plain of Waterloo;
but, before that period, the salubrity and mildness
of its temperature, the cheapness of its economi-
cal arrangements, and the tone of its society, had
made it a favourite place of abode with numbers
of this nation. So early as the time of Cromwell,
it was marked in the annals of England, as being
the chosen residence of Charles II., and of his
brother, afterwards James II., during the greater
part of the period of their exclusion from their
native country. The interior of the town, of it-
self, offers much to attract and to retain strangers.
Its environs are also beautiful by nature, and are
rendered still more so by the elegant additions of
art guided by refined taste.

The city was formerly surrounded by a wall
and ditch, neither of which now exist: what were
the ramparts, are, at present, beautiful walks bor-
dered with trees; those to the north and east are
called boulevards. The lower part of the city,
adjacent to the river, is irregular, and, from its
situation, somewhat unhealthy; but in the new
part, which occupies the more elevated portions,
the streets are spacious and airy, the houses well
built and lofty. Considerable attention is paid to
architectural ornament; and the custom of paint-
ing the outside with some lively colour presents
an agreeable variety to the eye.

The appearance of the city is much enlivened
by the elegance of its squares ; the principal are
the Place Roy*ale, the Great Market, the Place
St. Michael, the Corn Market, and the Grand Sa*
blon. Of these, the great market-place is indis-
putably the finest: it is an oblong of large dimen-
sions ; each side is of a different style of architec-
ture, yet all combine to form a whole highly
pleasing to the view. The town hall, and several
of those of the different trading companies, form
three of the sides, and one unitorm edifice on the
remaining side completes the parallelogram. St.
Michael’s square, also, deservedly attracts much
attention : it is, like the former, an extended ob-
long ; but it differs from it in having the buildings
of uniform architecture, ornamented with pillars
of the Doric order. The centre has been planted

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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