Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 132
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kirk. Bruges has been often taken. It is 14 m.
E. of Ostend.

Brugge, or Bruggen, a town of Lower Saxony,
in the principality of Hildesheim, on the river
Leyne, 12 m. S. W. of Hildesheim.

Bruggen, a town of Germany, the duchv of
Juliers: seated on the Schwalm, 6 m. N. £. of
Ruremonde.

Brugeneto, a town of the territory of Genoa, at
the foot of the Apennines, 35 m. E. S. E. of Ge-
noa.

Bruguiere La, a town of France, in the depart-
ment cf Tarn, 5 m. S. of Cashes. Pop. about

4,000.

Bruhl, a town of the Lower Rhine, in the elec-
torate of Cologne, about 7 m. S. of the city of Co-
logne. Pop. about 2,000.

Brumau, a town of Moravia, in the circle of
Hradisch, at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains,
on the frontiers of Hungary, 26 m. E. Hradisch.

Brummen, a populous village of Holland, in
Guelderland, on the road from Arnheim, to Zut-
phen.

Brump, or Brumeth, a frontier town of France,
in the department of the Lower Rhine, 10 m. N.
of Strasburg.

Bruneg, or Prunecken, a town of the Tyrol, sit-
uate in a fork of two branches of the river Rientz;
it has medicinal baths in its vicinity, and is about
15 m. E. by N. of Brixen.

Brunn, or Brinn, a town of Moravia, capital of
a circle of the same name, ahd a bishop’s see. It
is defended by a strong fortress, called Spilberg,
built on an eminence ; and has manufactures of
cloth, velvet, and plush. The Prussians besieged
it in 1742, but were obliged to raise the siege. It
is seated at the confluence of the Zwittau and
Schwartz, 33 m. S. W. of Olmutz. Long. 16. 38.
E. lat. 49. 13. N.

Brunncn, a town of Switzerland, in the canton
of Schweitz. Here the cantons of Uri, Schweitz,
and Underwalden, formed the alliance which was
the foundation of the republic of Switzerland. It
is seated on the AValdsteedter See,
2 m. S. AV. of
Schweitz.

Bnnishuttd, a town of Germany, in Holstein,
near the mouth of the Elbe, 13 m. N. W. of
Gluckstadt.

Brunswick, Duditj of, a territory of Germany,
in the south part of the circle of Lower Saxcny.
This territory formed the patrimony of the family
of Guelph, Welf, or Whelps, who trace their de-
scent from the marquis of Este, who died about
the middle of the 10th century. In 1546, it was
divided by Ernest, the then duke, between his two
sons; one founding the dukedom of Brunswick
Luneburg, and the other of Brunswick AVolfen-
buttel; the former will be described under the
head of Luneburg and Hanover, and the other
under that of AVolfenbuttel.

Brunswick, the chief town of the states of Bruns-
wick Wolfenbuttel. is situate in the principality
of AVolfenbuttel. on the banks of the river Ocker,
which falls into the Aller. It is strongly fortified,
and contains ten Lutheran churches, a cathedral,
dedicated to St. Blasius, one Calvinist, and one
Catholic church, a college, two academies, a mint,
opera house, town hall. &c. The ducal palace was
formerly a monastery. There is a large building
appropriated as a public storehouse for wine. It
lias several manufactories, and claims the inven-
tion of the spinning wheel; and is distinguished for
its breweries of
mum, made principally from
vvheaten malt, with a portion of oat and bean
malt, tops of fir and birch, and various herbs ; and,
with the exception of Leipzig aha Frankfort, tiie
fairs of Brunswick are more numerously attended
than in any other town in Germany. It formerly
ranked as a free independent city ; and for the
continuance of its freedom it long and strenuous-
ly contended ; hut towards the close of the 171.1i
century, yielded all its pretensions, and became
the ducal residence in 1764. It is 47 m. W. by
N. of Magdeburg, 35 E. hy S. of Hanover, and
about 110 S. by E. of Hamburgh, in the lat. of
52. 16. N. and 10. 30. of E. long. Pop. about

35,000.

Btunswick, New, a province of British America,
extending from the bay of Fundy south, in the
lat. of 4f>., to the frontier of Lower Canada, in
the lat. of 48. N., bounded on the west, partly by
the Sehoodic River, and partly by a conventional
line running from the head of tide water in the
above river, which divides it from the American
State of Maine, in the long, of 67. 45. AA7., to the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, in the long, of 64. It is
joined to Nova Scotia, at the south-east corner, hy
an isthmus, about 15 miles in breadth, and con-
tains an area of about 8,500 square miles, and an
aggregate population of about 60,000. It is inter-
sected from the north hy the river St. John, which
falls over a rapid into the bay of Fundy; the
rapid impedes the navigation for vessels of 100
tons burthen for a hundred miles, and vast quan-
tities of masts and logs of timber are floated down
for shipment in the bay, which is spacious and
secure. St. John’s, the chief town of the pro-
vince, it situate on the east shore of the bay, im-
mediately contiguous to the river of the same
name. It has several rivers running from W. to
E. into the gulf of St. Lawrence, on which side
of the province are several spacious bays, such
as Chaleur, Mirimichi, Richibucto, &c., from
whence vast quantities of timber are shipped to
Great Britain annually. A few tribes of native
Indians are scattered over the province. It pos-
sesses in general a capable soil, but cultivation
has made but little progress ; the inhabitants de,
pending more on the forests and the fishery, in
obtaining a supply of manufactures and other for-
eign productions, than on agriculture. Besides
St. John’s, the other chief towns are, St. Andrews,
on the east bank of the Schoodic, and St. Ann’s,
or, as it is now cAlled, Fredericton, which is the
seat of the provincial government, about 80 m. up
the river St. John.

Brunswick, p.t. Cumberland Co. Me. Pop.
3,747. It is situated on the south side of Andros-
coggin river, 26 m. N. E. of Portland. The river
has many falls at this place on which are situated
a number of mills as well as cotton and woolen
manufactories. But what chiefly distinguishes
the town is
Bowdoin College, which was established
here in 1806. It has a President and 6 professors.
Its library contains 12,000 vols. and it has a phi-
losophical and cheipical apparatus and a cabinet
of minerals. The college is supported partly by the
income of property bequeathed by James Bow-
doin, Governor of Massachusetts, from whom h
derives its name. The number of students is
137. There are 3 vacations, in May, September
and December, of 13 weeks. Commencement is
in September.

Brunswick, p.t. Rensselaer Co. N. Y. Pop
2,570. Also the name of 3 towns in Vt., Pa., and
Ohio.

Brunswick, a south frontier county of the E
District of Virginia, bordering on Northamntor














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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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