Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 128
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190 m. S. E. of Naples. Virgil died at Brindisi,
B C. 19.

Brinn. See Brunn.

Brioude, a town of France, in the department of
Upper Loire. Near it is a small town called
Church Brioude. on account of a famous chapter.
Brioude stands on the Allier, over which is a
bridge of one arch, 173 feet in diameter. It is 32
miles N. AV. of Puy, and 34 S. by E. of Clermont.
Pop. about 5,000. It was the birthplace of La
Fayette, distinguished for his enthusiasm in the
cause of the Americans to obtain their indepen-

Brisaeh, Old and New. Old Brisach is on the
east bank of the Rhine, and was formerly the
chief town of the Brisgau ; but the fortifications
were demolished in 1741, and the ordnance re-
moved to Friburg, about 15 miles in the interior.
New Brisach is a fortified towin on the opposite
bank of the river, in the French department of
the Upper Rhine, about 40 m. S. of Strashurg,
and 250 E. by S. of Paris. The fortification is one
of those constructed under the superintendence of
Vauban, in the reign of Louis XIV.

Bmsago, a town of Switzerland, on the lake
Maggiore, 5 m. S. of Locarno.

Brisgau, a territory in the circle of Suabia, of
about 1,000 square miles in extent, intersected
by the line of the 48th degree of N. lat. and 8th of
E. long, extending eastward from the Rhine into
the Black Forest. As a frontier district border-
ing on France, it has been exposed to ravage in
all the wars between that nation and Austria,
and has been the scene of several bloody contests.
At an early period of the French revolution, in
1793, the French reduced nearly the whole of the
town of Old Brisach to ashes ; and, in 1796, after
a severe action possessing themselves of Friburg,
the capital, but which they were obliged to aban-
don the same year. After various changes of
sovereignty, it was wholly ceded by Bonaparte to
the grand duke of Baden, in 1805, confirmed hy
treaty with Austria, and in the new subdivisions
ofthe territory of the states ofBaded, in 1810, the
■Brisgau was divided between the three circles of
Wiesen, Treisam, and Kinzig, the names of three
rivers by which the territory of Baden in inter-

Bristino, a town of Naples in Capitanata, 11m.
S. S. W. of Manfredonia.

Brissac, a town of France in the department of
Maine-et-Loire : seated on the Aubence, 13 m. S.
of Angers.

Bristol, an ancient maritime, and ecclesiasti-
cal city and county of England, situate at the
south-west extremity of the county of Glouces-
ter, at the confluence of the little river Frome
with the Lower Avon, which divides it from
Somersetshire on the south, about ten miles above
the confluence of the Avon with the Severn into
the arm of the sea called the Bristol Channel.
Bristol was known at a very early period ; and
about the year 430 it is mentioned as one of the
fortified cities of Britian. It wins known to the
ancient Britons by the name of
Caer Oder nant
or the city of Ostorius, in the valley of
Bath, and by way of eminence it wins sometimes
Caer L.tto, the British city, and by the
Bightstoice, pleasant place. It is adverted
to both by Gildus and Nennius, in the fifth and
seventh centuries, and from the period of Henry

II. in the twelfth, to the middle of the eighteenth
century, it ranked, next to London, as the most
populous, commercial and important place in the
kingdom. Since the latter period, although it
has not declined, it has been greatly exceeded in
population, commerce, and importance by Glas-
gow, Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, and Birming-
ham. The population of Bristol including the
suburb of Bedminister, on the Somersetshire side
of the river, and Clifton on the north (which see)
in 1810 was 65,924, and in 1821, 95,758 of which
number 42,169 were in the out-parishes, and 52,
819 within the city ; of the increase, the greatest
proportion was in the suburb of Bedminister,
which wins as 7,979 to 2,279. As into all the
rivers falling into the Bristol channel, the tides
rise to a great height, and occasionally rush in
with considerable fury. The spring tides at Bris-
tol rising to the height of 42 feet, ebbs and neaps
were consequently attended with great inconven-
iences and detentions. This circumstance, since
the completion of the canal navigation of the in-
land counties communicating with Liverpool and
London, neither of which parts are materially
affected by the inequality of the tides, tended to
divert a considerable portion of the AVest India
trade, and refining of sugar, from Bristol. It
however, retains a certain portion : the importa-
tion of sugar, on an average, of the six years
1819—1824, was about 27,000 hogsheads per ann.
It also imports a considerable quantity of wool,
fruit, and wine, direct from Spain, Portugal and
France ; and maintains a partial intercourse direct
with all other parts of the world, except the East
Indies, to which, up to 1826, it had not sent more
than one or two ships. From 1809 to 1822, about
£600,000 had been expended towards the improve-
ment of the harbour. In the latter year an-
other act was granted for its further improve
ment; and in 1825 numerous arbitrary and op-
pressive town dues were abolished, or duly reg
ulated; all of which are as well calculated to re
vive and maintain its commercial prosperity, as
to add to the comfort, interest, and character, of
the city at large. It has some extensive works
in copper and brass, and manufactures of glass
bottles, lead, painters’ colours, &c. &c. The
value of its exports, however, are inconsiderable,
its West India produce being imported to defray
the interest on mortgages, or as the proceeds of
property acquired by means of the traffic in slaves,
and the produce of their labour, since the traffic
was abolished. Its imports from all other parts
are principally equalized through London. In
addition to the advantages derived from its com-
merce it is indebted to a hot winll for a considera-
ble portion of the increase of its population, the
water being considered very efficacious in the
cure of diabetes, phthisical, scorbutic, and inflam-
matory disorders, it renders it the resort alike of
valetudinarians and of fashion. Besides the ca-
thedral and the church of St. Mary Radcliffe, it
has sixteen other churches, and five episcopal
chapels, some of them beautiful and most of them
fine edifices. There are several dissenting meet-
ing-houses, thirteen fellowship companies, some
of whom have elegant halls, several hospitals, and
other public buildings ; and being surrounded by
a very fertile as well as picturesque country, its
markets are abundantly supplied w7ith every kind
of fish, flesh, fowl, vegetables, and fruits ; and
two annual fairs in March and September are
very numerously attended. It has a distinct
jurisdiction, and returns two members to parlia-
ment, the voters amounting to about 8,000. In
November 1831 this city was the scene of a terri-
ble riot occasioned by the rejection of
the Re-

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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