Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 125
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north by the country ofthe Grisons,andeastby the
principality of Trent, the Veronese, and Mantua.
The Oglio has its source in the north extremity
of this province, runs south for about 30 miles,
when it forms the lake of Jeso, and afterwards
the boundary between Bergamasco and the Cremo-
nese. The Chiana intersects the east side, falling
into the Oglio at the south-east extremity of the
province ; the S.nela and several other streams,
intersect the centre and southern part ofthe prov-
ince, all falling into the Oglio, and lake Garda
divides it from the Veronese on the east. Its su-
perficies may be stated at about 3,000 square miles,
and population at 500,000. It has some dreary
spots ; but on the whole it may be considered a
fertile district, producing corn, wine, and oil, in
abundance. The vine, olive, and mulberry, all
luxuriate in its soil; and the lakes and rivers sup-
ply abundance of fish. It exports some silk ;
but its manufactures do not much, if at all, ex-
ceed the demand and consumption of the province.
Besides Brescia, the capital of the other principal
towns are, Breno, Chiari, Orci, Novi, and Salo.
It was formerly a part of the republic of Venice :
but is now under the dominion of Austria.

Brescia, an ecclesiastical city and capital of the
preceding province, situate in a spacious and fer-
tile plain, between the rivers Mela and Navilo,
on the high road from Bergamo to Mantua. It is
well fortified, and has a gqod citadel, on an em-
inence. It has twelve churches, and thirty con-
vents. The cathedral and the palace are adorned
with beautiful printings, and
in the former is
shown the standard of Constantine. Here are
several flourishing manufactures, and its fire-arms
are particularly celebrated. This city has been
taken and retaken several times, hy the Anstrians
and French. Pop. about 50,000. A stream, cal-
led the Garza, runs through the city, afterwards
falling into the Mela. It is about 50 m. N. of
Parma,
40 N. W. of Mantua, and 30 S. E. of
Bergamo.

Bresello, a town of Italy, in the Modenese, on
the river Po, 27 m. N. W. of Modena.

Breslau, an ecclesiastical city and capital of a
principality of the same name and of all Silesia;
seated on the banks of the Oder, just below
the
junction of the little river Ohlau, which runs
through several of the streets, and forms two is-
lands. It has one Lutheran and twenty-six Cath-
olic churches, and is surrounded by walls,
strengthened hy ramparts and other works. It
has a great trade in linen, leather, Hungarian
whies, 4‘c- an(l contains -60,000 inhabitants.
The public squares are spacious, the streets toler-
abir wide, and the houses lofty. Here the Jes-
nits founded a university, in 1702, at which there
are generally ahout four hundred students. The
tw.j'principal churches belong to the protestants J
near one of which is a college. This city be-
came subject to the king of Prussia in 1741. It
was taken by the Austrians, in 1757, but regained
the
same year. It was for some time besieged by
the French, and surrendered to them in January,
1807, and again in 1813; but reverted to Prussia
after
the peace of 1814. It is 112 m. N. E. of
Prague,
and 165 N. of Vienna. Long. 17. 9. E.
lat.
51. 3. N. Tbe principality contains about 950
square miles of area, and 180,000 inhabitants.

Bresle, a river of France, which divides the
department
of Lower Seine from that of Somme
and enters the
English channel at Treport.

Bresse, a late province of France, bounded on
the north by Burgundy and Franshe Comte, east
by Savoy, south by the Viennois, and west by the
Lyonnois. It now forms the department of Ain.

Bressuire, a town of France, in the department
of Two Sevres, with a college, 35 m. N. WT. of
Poitiers. Pop. 2,000.

Brest, a maritime town of France, in the depart-
ment of Finisterre. Prior to 1631, it was an insig-
nificant fishing town ; but having one ofthe most
commodious and secure harbours in Europe, it
was improved by the French government, under
the administration of Richelieu, in the reign of
Louis XIV. for a marine station, and it is now the
chief naval depot of France ; situate on a promon-
tory at the western extremity of the kingdom. It
is equally convenient for the equipment of expedi-
tions to all parts of the coast, or of the world. The
English made an ineffectual attempt to take it in
1694; and during the twenty-three years’ war,
from 1793, to 1814, it compelled the English to
maintain a large blockading squadron off the har-
bour, without doing the least possible injury to
France. The extensive occupations attendant on
the building, repairing, and equipment of a great
national marine, necessarily gave rise to an ex-
tensive interchange and consumption of commod-
ities of various kinds ; and the town of Brest has
consequently risen into importance proportionate
to the consequence derived from its being the chief
naval station of the kingdom. It now contains
a population of about 25,000. It has a marine
academy, theatre, &c. It is 33 m. E. of Ushant
Light, in the lat. of48.23. N. and 4. 29. of W. long,
being 27 m. S. and 6 deg. 49.; or about 325 geo-
graphical miles, W. by S. of Paris.

Bretagne, or Brittany, a late province of France,
150 miles long and 112 broad. It is a promontory,
united on the east to Maine, Anjou, and Poitou.
The
air is temperate, and it has large forests. It
now
forms the departments of Finisterre, Cotes du
Nord,
Hie and Villaine, Lower Loire, and Morbi-
han.

Bret,mil, a town of France, in the department
of Oise, 14 m. N. N. E. of Beauvais, and 18 S. of
Amiens. Pop. about 2,200.

Breton Cape. See Cape Breton.

Bretten, a town of Germany, in the late palati-
nate of the Rhine, on the frontier of Wurtem-
berg, 20 m. S. of Heidelberg, and about 30 N. by
W. of Stuttgard. Pop. 2,500. It was the birth-
place of Melancthon, and is now inclpded in the
territory of the duchy of Baden, circle of the
Pfintz and Enz.

Bretton Woods, t. Coos Co. N. H. at the foot of
the White Mountains. Pop. 108.

Brevord, or Brevoort, a strong town of Holland,
in the county of Zutphen with a castle, situate in
a morass, 24 m. S. E. of Zutphen.

Brevier, ph. Penobscot Co. Me. Pop. 1,078.

Brewood, a town in Staffordshire, Eng. 10 m.
S. by VV. of Stafford, and 129 N. W. of London.
Pop. in 1821,2,263.

Brewster, ph. Barnstable Co. Mass. upon Cape
Cod, 16 m. E. Barnstable. Pop. 1,418.

Brainsk, an interior town of Russia, in the
province of Orel, situate on the Desna, an eastern
branch of the Dnieper, about 250 m. S. W. of
Moscow. Pop. about 4,000. It has an annual fair
very numerously attended.

Brianqon, a town of France, on the frontier r*
Piedmont, in the department of Upper Alps, with
a castle on a craggy rock, and other fortifications.
In its neighbourhood, manna is gathered from a
sort of pine tree. It has a handsome church, and
a noble bridge over the Durance, 20 m. N. of
L 2














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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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