and 23 N. W. of Manchester. It has a free gram-
mar school, with an endowment of about £150
per ann. and also a female charity school, with
nearly a similar endowment; four churches, two
of them handsome, and several meeting-houses.
Black Forest, a mountainous and woody district
of Germany, part of the ancient Hercynian Forest,
extending N. from the frontiers of Switzerland,
for about 100 m. parallel with the N. course of
the Rhine. The principal part lies within the
territory of the Duchy of Baden, bordering on
Bavaria, the N. part running into the territory of
Wurtemburg. It is in some places rich in iron
and other metals, and its wood is very valuable
as well for fuel as for building both of houses and
vessels for navigating the Rhine.
stone canal extending from Worcester to Provi
dence, 45 miles. It contains 48 locks built of
hammered stone, and is 34 feet wide at the sur-
face and 4 feet deep. It was built at a cost of COO,
000 dollars and finished in 1826. The navigation
I Blackheath, an elevated and spacious plain, the
ascent to which is 5 m. E. of London Bridge. It
is partly in the parish of Greenwich, and the up-
per part of the park of the hospital of Greenwich
is part of the plain. It is intersected by the great
high road from London to Dover, and is celebra-
ted in several periods of English history. The
Danes encamped upon it in 1012. In 1390 the
celebrated Wat Tyler assembled 100,000 men
against the government, to avenge an insult of-
fered to his daughter by a petty tax-gatherer at
Hartford. In 1450, Jack Cade assembled his
forces on the same spot; and in 145)7, it was the
scene of a contest between Henry VII. and Lord
Audley- It is surrounded by detached houses, and
ranges of handsome buildings, residences of some
of the more opulent classes connected with the
transactions of London. It commands some fine
prospects, and in the summer season, especially,
is a beautiful and interesting spot. In the side
of the ascent from London is a cavern consisting
of seven large rooms, which communicate by
arched avenues; the sides and roofs of rocks of
chalk; and it has a well of clear water, 27 feet
Black Lake, a river of Louisiana rising in the X.
W. expanding into a wide sheet of water and
flowing into the Saline.
Black Lick, t. Indiana Co. Pa.
Blackncss-costle, a fort of Scotland, in Linlith-
gowshire, built on a kind of peninsula on tiie frith
of Forth, 9 m. N. E. of Linlithgow. It consists of
four bastions, and is one of the forts which, by
the articles of union, are to be kept in repair.
Blackpool, a village in Lancashire, Eng. 3 m.
W. of Poulton, much resorted to for sea-bathing.
Black River, the name of several rivers in dif->
ferent parts of the world. 1st. In the county of
Mayo, Ireland, falling into Lake Mask. 2nd. In
the S. W. part of the island of Jamaica, falling
into the Caribean Sea. 3rd. In Upper Canada,
falling into Black Bay, Lake Superior. 4th. In
Orleans county, Vermont, falling into Lake Mem-
pbremagog. 5th. In Windsor county, ditto, fal-
ling into the Connecticut. 0th. In Virginia, fal-
ling into the Nottoway, on the frontiers ofN. Car-
olina. 7th. Intersecting Darlington district, S.
Carolina, falling into the great Pedee. 8th. Fal-
ling into Lake Michigan, towards the S. E. end ;
and several others, but all inconsiderable.
Black Rock. p.v. Erie Co. N. Y. on Lake Erie
4 m. N. Buffalo. It is a small village with a har-
bour artificially improved by a pier. The seams
and patches of dark coloured chert in the lime-
stone here have given its name to this place.
Blackstone, a river rising near Worcester, Mass.
and flowing into Narraganset Bav near Provi-
dence. Along the va!ley*>f this river is the Black-
of Massachusetts finds by its means a ready mai
ket in the commercial city of Providence.
Blacksburg, p.v. Montgomery Ccr. Va. 217 m
S. W. Richmond.
Blacksburg, and BlacksviUe, 2 towns on the riv-
er Alabama in Monroe Co. Alab.
Black Sea. See Euxme.
Blackwall, a suburb of London, situate in a nook
at the S. E. extremity of the county of Middlesex.
It is bounded on the E. by the river Lea, which
divides it from the county of Essex, at its junc-
tion with the Thames, which from Blackwall to-
wards London Bridge, makes a considerable detour,
the distance by the course of the river being about
10 miles, and more than diJhble the distance of the
meridional line. This has led to the construction
of a tide canal, nearly a mile in length, for ships
of GOO to 800 tons burthen, across the isthmus for-
med b}- the detour of the river; and also to the
construction of basins or docks for the reception
of all the ships arriving from the West and East
Indies. The West India dock establishment is
the most magnificent and complete work of the
kind in the world : it consists of two outer basins
from the river at Blackwall, which lead to the
grand receiving basin, an oblong square, 1,200
yards in length, affording quay room for about sev-
enty sail of large vessels to discharge their cargoes
at one time, with moorings for 100 to 200 vessels
more in the centre. On the S. side is a range of
magnificent store houses, alternately of two and
five stories, of sufficient capacity to warehouse
100,000 tons of merchandize. The N. side has a
covered quay, and a low range of warehouses over
vaults, for the storing of 50,000 puncheons of rum,
dye-woods, &c. &c. After discharging their car-
goes, the vessels leave the receiving basin at the
W. end through an outer basin that communicates
again with the river, or to the outward bound basin,
on the S. in a line parallel with the grand receiving
basin, taking their departure through the outer
basins at Blackwall. The quays of the grand re-
ceiving basin are all of stone, and the conveniences
for unloading stores, and distributing of the mer-
chandize, with the swing-bridges over the entrance
to the outer basins and the dock gates, are all as
complete as labour and art can make them, whilst
a suitable taste pervades the whole. It was first
opened in 1802. Betweemthe West India Docks
and the river Lea are two spacious basins for the
reception of all ships from China and the East In-
dies with storehouses for the ships stores, salt
petre, and some of the more bulky productions