they are surrounded. The peasants of Austria
have been born under the influence of the star of
passive obedience, which for years past has been
preached to them with mildness and persuasion,
rather than violence; and as such has made them
a quiet and contented people, and as far as con-
tentment constitutes happiness, the peasantry of
the archduchy of Austria, may perhaps, justly be
considered as the happiest and best conditioned
in Europe ; but after all, in the legitimate sense
of the term happiness, it is a condition alike re-
pugnant to common sense, and derogatory to the
character of man. The character of the govern-
ment, courtiers, and privileged classes of the arch-
duchy of Austria, although tending somewhat to
self-importance, is on the whole, courteous, affa-
ble, and condescending; and whilst the peasantry
of the archduchy may be considered the most con-
tented,the court may be considered the least licen-
tious of any in Europe.
Antauga, a county of Alabama, on the river Al-
abama. Pop. 11,872. Washington is the chief town.
Autun, a city of France, and an episcopal see,
in the department of Saone and Loire. It con-
tains many vestiges of Roman magnificence, par-
ticularly the temples of Janus and Cybele. Here
are manufactures of tapestry, carpets, coverlets,
and delft ware. The cathedral of St. Lazarus,
the college, and the seminary, are worthy of no-
tice. Autun is seated on the Arroux, at the foot
of three mountains, 45 m. E. by S. of Nevers, and
162 S. E. of Paris.
Auvergne, a late province of France, 100 miles
long, and 75 broad; bounded on the north by the
Bourbonnois, east by Forez and Velay, south by
Rouergue and the Oevennes, and west by Limo-
sin, Querci, and La Manche. It now forms the
two departments of Cantal and Puy de Dome.
Auvillard, a town of France, in the department
of Lot and Garonne, situate on the river Garonne,
13 m. S. E. of Agen.
Auxerre, a city of France, capital of the depart-
ment of Vonne, and lately an episcopal see. It
contains many fountains and squares, and the
episcopal palace is deemed one of the most beau-
tiful in France. It is seated on the side of a hill,
on the river Yonne, 75 miles AV. N. W. of Dijon,
and 90 S. S. E. of Paris. Pop. about 11,000.
Auxon, a town of France, in the department of
Aube, 13 m. S. of Troyes.
Auxonne, a town of France, in the department
of Cote dOr, with a castle," an arsenal, a foundry
for cannon, and a school for the artillery. It is
seated on the Saone, 17 m. E. of Dijon. Fop.
Auzen or Tigre, a town of Abyssinia, capital of
the province of Tigre, and a place of considerable
commerce. It is seated on a river that flows into
the Taceazze, 170 m. N. E. of Gondar. Long.
39. 93. E. lat. 14. 4. N.
Ava, a country of Asia, now generally called
Eirmah, which see.
Ava, a large city, formerly the metropolis of the
Birman empire. It is divided into an upper and
lower city, both of which are fortified ; the lower
is the most extensive, about four miles in circum-
ference, protected by a lofty wall, now moulder-
ing into decay. The materials of the houses, con-
sisting chiefly of wood, were removed about the
year 1783 to "the new city; and its numerous tem-
Eles, on which the Birmans never lay sacrilegious
ands, are dilapidating by time. Clumps of bam-
boos, a few plantain trees, and tall thorns, occupy
most of the area of this lately flourishing capital.
It is situate on the S. side of the Erabatty, 4 m.
S. W. of Ummerapoora, the present capital, in N.
lat. 22. E. long. 96. 5.
Avalon, a town of France, in the department of
Yonne, which has a great trade in grain, wine,
and cattle, and a manufacture of cloth. It is seat-
ed on the Cousin, 24 m. S. S. E. of Auxerre. Pop.
Avallon, a town of France, on the east side of
the department of Yonne, about 20 m. S. by E. of
Avatscha, or Awatsha, a large hay, forming a
very commodious harbour for ships of the largest
burthen, near the S. E. extremity of the coast of
Kamschatka. The town of St. Peter and St. Paul
on the north side of the bay, is in lat. 53. 1. NT. and
15. 8. E. long. Saratounka is another town on
the S. side.
Aveiro, a town of Portugal, in Beira, with a
good harbour for vessels of a moderate size. The
chief trade is in salt, of which great quantities are
made in its vicinity. It stands on a small gulf,
at the mouth of the Vouga, 33 m. S. of Oporto.
Long. 8. 40. W. lat. 40. 40. N.
Avciron, an interior department of the south of
France, including the late province of Rouergue.
It is named from a river which rises near Severac
le Chateau, and flowing by Rhodez and Viile-
franche, joins the Garonne, below Montauban.
The Lot intersects the northern, and the Tarn the
southern part of the department; it is divided in-
to five arondisements; Adllefranche, Milhau, St.
Afrique, Espalion, and Rhodez, the last is the
capital of the department, which contains a popu-
lation of about 320,000.
Avella, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro
celebrated for its honey and apples, 15 m. N. E.
Avellino, a town of Naples, in Principato Ulte-
riore. It was almost ruined by an earthquake in
1694, and again in 1805. Near it is the celebrated
convent of Monte Airgine, on a wild mountain,
which formerly had a sumptuous temple of Cybele.
Avellino is famous for the dye of cloth, also for
nuts and maccaroni. It is 25 m. E. of Naples.
Pop. about 9,000.
Avenay, a town of France, in the department
of Marne, on the river Marne, 15 m. AV. N. AV. of
Avenche, a town of Switzerland, in the canton
of Berne, formerly the capital of Helvetia, but
now greatly decayed, grain and tobacco being
raised on the site of part of the ancient city. It
stands at the south end of the lake Morat, 15 m.
W. of Bern.
Avcntsville, p.v. Nash Co. N. C. 75 m. N. E.
Averbach, a town of Upper Saxony, in Vogt-
land, near which is a rock famous for pale topazes-
It is 14 m. S. of Zwickau.
Averill, a town in Essex Co. Vt. 63 m. N. Mont-
pelier. Pop. 1.
Averno, a lake of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro,
600 yards in diameter, near Puzzuoli. Airgil and
others have said the water wins so had, that birds
dropt dead when flying over it, and hence they
calf it the lake of hell; but it now has no such
poisonous quality, far birds swim upon it. A lit-
tle to the west of the lake is a cave, where some
pretend they went formerly to consult the Cumae-
an sybil. There are also some old walls, which
some suppose to be the ruins of a temple of Apol
lo, and others of Pluto.
Aversa, a town of Naples, in Terra di Lavoro