Alva de Tormes, a town of Spain, in Leon,
with a castle, once the residence of the celebrated
duke of Alva, seated on the Tormes, 16 in. S. E.
Alvarado, a river of Mexico, in the province of
Vera Cruz, which rises 40 miles above the town
of Cordova, and flows N. E. till it enters the gulf
of Mexico, at a town of the same name, 40 m. S.
E. of Vera Cruz.
Alvaston, a village in Gloucestershire, Eng., 8
m. N. by E. of Bristol. On the top of a hill,
near the Severn, is a round camp, called Oldbury,
where several antiquities have been dug up.
Alzira, or Alcira, a populous town of Spain,
which has a great trade in silk. It is surrounded
by the Xucar, 17 m. S. of Valencia.
Amadan, or Ha.ma.dan, a town of Persia, in Irac
Ajami. Here are many Jews, who allege that
the tombs of Mordecai and Esther are in the
place which serves them for a synagogue. Ama-
dan is a very ancient city; on its site, or near
it, the ancient Ecbatana is supposed to have stood.
It is said to have been destroyed by Nebuchad-
nezzar, and-rebuilt by Darius, who brought hith-
er all his riches. It is situate to the north of the
upper road from Bagdad to Ispahan, about 15
miles from Kenghey. It has considerable manu-
factures of leather, and contains about 40,000 in-
Amadia, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Curdis-
tan, governed by a Bey, seated on a high moun-
tain, 40 miles S. E. of Gezira. Lono-. 41.35. lat.
37. 20. N.
Amak, or Amager, an island of Denmark, on
which part of Copenhagen, called Christiansha-
fen, is built. It is eight miles long and four
broad, and separated from Zealand by a narrow
channel, over which are two bridges that commu-
nicate with Copenhagen. It is laid out in gar-
dens and pastures, and supplies Copenhagen with
milk, butter, and vegetables.
Amal, a town of Sweden, in Gothland, with
a good harbour on the lake Wener. It has a
great trade in timber, deals, and tar; and is 175
m. S. W. of Upsal. Long. 12. 40. E. lat. 59.
Amdlagano. one of the Ladrone islands, about
6 leagues in circumference. Lon. 145. 38. E. lat.
18. 0. N.
Amalfi, a sea-port of Naples, in Principato Ci-
terkire, and an archbishops see. Flavio Gioia,
who is said to have invented the mariners com-
pass, was a native of this town. It is seated on
the N. W. side of the gulf of Salerno, 13 m. S.
W. of Salerno. Long. 14. 45. E. lat. 40. 28. N.
Amand, St. a town of France, in the depart-
ment of Cher, near the river Cher, 21 m. S. of
Amand, St. a town of France, in the depart-
ment of Nord, with an abbey; seated on the
Scarp, 7. m. N. of Valenciennes.
Amanda, p.t. Fairfield Co. Ohio.
Amandasville. p.v. Elbert Co. Geo.
Amantca. a sea-port of Naples, near the bay
of Eufemia. 20 m. S. W. of Cosenza. Long. 16.
10. E. lat. 39. 12. N.
AmapaLla, a sea-port of Mexico, in Nicaragua,
seated on an island on the west side of the en-
trance of a gulf of the same name. Long. 88.
30. W. lat. 13. 10. N.
Amasia, or Amasieh, a town of Asiatic Turkey
in Natolia, the birth-place of Strabo, the geogra-
pher. It is the capital of a province which produ-
ces excellent wines and fruits. It was devastated
by an earthquake, in 1794. It is seated on the
Casalmack, which falls into the Black Sea, 36 m.
N. of Tncat. Long. 36. 0. E. lat. 40. 31. N.
Amathus, an ancient town in the isle of Cy-
prus, so called from Amathus the founder, or
from Amath in Phoenicia. It had a very ancient
temple of Venus and Adonis; and according to
Ovid, was rich in copper ore. It is now called
Amazon, or Maranon, a river of South Ameri-
ca, and the greatest in the world. Its source is
in Peru, not far from the Pacific ocean, and Tun-
ing east, it enters the Atlantic Ocean, directly
under the equinoctial line. Its course is 3,300
miles, its mouth is 150 miles broad, and 1,50&
miles from its mouth, it is 30 fathoms deep, k,
receives, in its progress, near 200 rivers, many
of which have a course of 1,500 miles, and some
of them not inferior to the Danube, or the Nile.
In the rainy season it overflows its banks, and
fertilizes the adjacent country.
Amazonia, a country of South America,
1,400 m. long and 960 broad ; bounded on the
N. by Terra Firma and Guiana, E. by the
Atlantic Ocean and Brasil, S. by the Paraguay,
and W. by Peru. ■ It was discovered in 1580 by
Francesco Orellana, who, coming from Peru,
sailed down the river Amazon to the Atlantic.
Observing companies of women in arms on its
banks, he called the country Amazonia, and gave
•the name of Amazon to the river, which had
formerly been called Maranon. The air in this
country is cooler than might be expected, consid-
ering its situation in the torrid zone ; this is owing
partly to the heavy rains, which cause the inun-
dations of the rivers for one half of the year;
and partly to the cloudiness of the atmosphere,
by which the sun is obscured the greatest part of
the day. The fair season is about the time of the
solstices, and the rainy seasons about the equi-
noxes. The soil is very rich and fertile; the
trees and plants are verdant all the year. The
woods abound with game of various kinds. The
rivers and lakes abound with fish, but are infested
by alligators and water serpents. Their banks
are inhabited by different tribes of Indians, gov-
erned by petty sovereigns, distinguished from
their subjects by a coronet of feathers, a belt of
tigers teeth or claws, and a wooden sword. The
natives are of a good stature and copper colour,
with handsome features and long black hair.
They make cotton cloth, and their houses are
built of wood and clay, thatched with reeds.
Their arms are darts, javelins, bows and arrows,
and targets of cane or fish-skin. The Spaniards
have made many unsuccessful attempts to settle
in this country ; but on the coast, between Cape
North and the mouth of the Amazon, the Portu-
guese have some small settlements.
Amba- Geshen, a rock in Abyssinia, of a most pro-
digious steepness, in the form a castle, built of
free-stone, and almost impregnable. The Ethiopic
princes were formerly banished hither by their
fathers, the emperors, that they might not attempt
any thing against the state,and that their residence
might be as noted for its height as their birth.
Amber, p.v. Onondaga Co. N. Y. 145 m. W. Al-
Amberg, a fortified town of Bavaria, with a
strong castle. The magnificent church of St. Mar-
tin contains many beautiful paintings and curi
osities ; and the mint is esteemed one of the finest
buildings of the kind in Germany. In 1743 it
was taken by the Austrian®, and in 1796 by the