in the East Indies between Mindanao and Luzon.
Long. 122. 15. E. lat. 10. 0 N;
Abyssinia, a kingdom on the E. side of Africa,
extending, in length, from about'the 9th to the
17th deg. of N. lat. and at its southern base,
from about the 35th to the 4:rd deg. of E. long,
and at the N. from about the 35th to the 38th of
do. forming an area of about 140,000 sq. m.
bounded on the N. by Sennaar, on the E hy the
Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea, and on the S. and W.
by very undefined limits, and countries very lit-
tle known. A range of rugged mountains of
considerable altitude, extending along the whole
line of coast of the Red Sea, shut in Abyssinia,
and nearly exclude it from all advantages of mari-
time intercourse. Some fine and fruitful plains
pervade the southern part of the teritory, but the
prevailing characteristic of Abyssinia is moun-
tainous and wild, and its inhabitants are as rude
and ferocious as their country is wild and rugged.
Its climate is various, hut on the whole fine; it
is exceedingly rich in vegetable productions, both
of utility and beauty. The elephant, rhinoceros,
buffaloes, leopards of various species, zehra, and
especially the hyaena, abound; the latter is particu-
larly ferocious and destructive; there are no ti-
gers, and the lion is not common; there are vari-
ous other wild animals, as well as the domestic
ones common to Europe; the horses are strong
and handsome, and there is a species of oxen with
horns 4 ft. in length, and 20 inches in circumfer-
ence at the root; the hippopotami and crocodile
are common to the swamps and rivers which flow
into the Nile. Amongst the numerous feathered
tribes common to the country is the golden and
black eagle, and some owls of extraordinary size
and beauty; bees abound to such a degree, that
honey, in the southern parts of the country, forms
the staple article of production, and standard of
value in exchange for all other commodities, and
constitutes the principal article of food; locusts
commit great devastation, and there is a species
of fly extremely annoying and even destructive
to the cattle in the rainy season. The whole of
the external traffic of Abyssinia is carried on at
Massowah, a small island on the coast of the Red
Sea, in N. lat. 15. 34. E. long. 39 37. where ele-
phants teeth, rhinoceros horns, gold-dust, honey,
wax, and slaves are exchanged for spices, iron,
lead, copper, tin, and manufactured goods gener-
ally. The country is formed into three great di-
visions. 1st. Tigre, N. of which the chief towns
are Adowa, Antalo, Dixan, and Axum; 2nd Am-
hara, W. of the Tacazze river, of which Gondar
and Empras are the chief towns, and the former the
capital of the whole kingdom; 3rd. Shoa Efat, S.
of which Ankober and Tegulet are the chief
towns. The Abyssinians profess to he Christians,
and some of their churches are spacious edifices,
but their religious ceremonies are made up of the
crude formalities of the Jewish worship, and of
the Greek Christians. Their language is a dia
lect of the-Arabic; of the extent of the pop it is
difficult to form even a conjecture.
Acapulco, a town of Mexico, on the shores of
the Pacific Ocean, in lat. 16. 55. N. and 100. 54.
W. long. -During the domination of Spanish
rule in South America, Acapulco was the princi-
pal trading town of all New Spain; one, and
sometimes two ships, annually, of several 100
tons burthen, used to arrive from the Philippine
Islands, laden with all the choicest productions of
Asia, to be exchanged for the gold and silver of
Mexico; but this intercourse oeased with the wars
which followed the French revolution in 1792,
since which period to the present time (1832) the
commerce of all S. America has been exposed to
numerous vicissitudes, and Acapulco has sunk
into the utmost insignificance. Its harbour is ca-
pacious and secure, being formed into a hasin by
the small island of Rogneta, and defended hy a
fort on the N. W. The town contains only about
4,000 inhabitants, and is exceedingly unhealthy,,
the temperature prevailing as high as 96, and
hardly ever below 86 of Fahrenheit.
Acasabastlan, a river of Mexico, in the province
of Vera Paz, which runs into the Gulf of Dolce
There is also a village of the same name, in the
province of Chiapa.
Accomack, a Co. of Virginia, forming the N
part of a promontory, bounded on the W. by
Chesapeake Bay, and on the E. by the Atlantic
Ocean, extending from the S. E. corner of the
State of Maryland. Pop. 19,656. Drummond-
town, 207. m. E. by N. of Richmond, is the chief
Acheen, a kingdom, forming the N. W. part of
the island of Sumatra, the head of Point redro,
the most northerly part being in 5. 42. N. Lat. and
95. 35. E. long, and extending about 50 m. E. by
S. During the early period of the intercourse of
Europe with Asia, by the Cape of Good Hope,
Acheen was a powerful state and carried on an
extensive trade with the Malay and Coromandel
coasts, and other parts of Asia; and on the Por-
tuguese successively attempting to form a settle-
ment upon the Island of Sumatra, in the early
part of the 16th century, they were completely
expelled by the Achenese, and although consider-
ably declined in power and importance, the Ache-
nese are still an active, and when compared with
other Asiatics, an efficient and industrious people.
The chief town of the same name, is situate on
a river about 2 m. from the bay formed by King's
Point, in N. lat. 5. 33. and 95. 17. E. long, and
Point Pedro above mentioned.
Achill, an island, forming part of the Co. of
Mayo, on the western coast of Ireland, in 54. 7.
N. lat. 10. 31. W. long.
Achmim, a town of Egypt, the residence of an
emir, or prince of the country. It has manufac-
tures of coarse cottons, and stands on a small
eminence, on the right hank of the Nile, 200 m.
S. of Cairo. Long. 31. 56. E. lat. 26. 40. N.
Achonry, a populous parish, in Leney Barony,
co. of Sligo, Ireland. Pop. in 1821, 12,990.
Achorstown, p. village in Middletown, Colum-
bia Co. Ohio, 160 hi. N. E. Columbus.
Achen, a town of Lower Saxony, in the duchy
of Magdeburg, with a citadel, on the Elbe, 5 m.
N. W. of Dessau.
Acklam, a village 12 m. from York, where the
body of the Emperor Severas, who died at York,
was burnt to ashes,-agreeably to the custom of
A coma, or St. Estevan de Acoma, a town of
New Mexico, seated on a hill, with a good castle.
The town is ascended by a flight of steps cut
out of the rock It was formerly the capital of
that province. Long. 104. 15. W. lat. 35. 0. N.
Aconcagua, one of the provinces of Chile, in-
tersected by the 32d degree of S. lat. and 70th of
W. long. It is inconsiderable both in extent and
population. There is a town of the same name,
and also a river running through the province
and that of Quillota into the sea.
Acqua, a town of Tuscany, noted for its warm
baths, 15 in. E. of Leghorn.