Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 7
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Aberdeen, the principal city in the North of
Scotland, situated on the coast of the German
ocean, at the efflux inf the rivers Dee and Don,
127 m. N. E. from Edinburgh It has an obser-
vatory ; in Ion. 2. 29. W. lat. 57. 9. N. Under
the dftnomination of Aberdeen are comprehended
two towns, distinguished as the
Old and New,
which, however, are almost united by their re-
spective suburbs.

Aberdeen, Old, formerly Aherdon, in the parish
of Old Machar, or St. Machar, is pleasantly situ-
ated on an eminence near the mouth of the river
Don, about a mile north of the New Town. It
is of great antiquity, and was of some importance
so long ago as 893, when, according to tradition,
king Gregory the Great conferred on it some pe-
culiar privileges, but no authentic records are ex-
tant prior to 1154. By charter, the free burgess-
es of the town are vested with the power of choos-
ing their own magistracy, who are a provost,* 3
bailies, a treasurer, and council, with the deacons
of 6 incorporated trades. The town consists
chiefly of one long street. There is a neat
town-house, a new building, and a Trades Hos-
pital for decayed freemen and their widows, and
a hospital for 12 poor men, founded by Bishop
William Dunbar, in 1532. But the chief orna-
ment of Old Aberdeen is the large and stately fa-
bric of King’s College, founded by Bishop Elphin-
stone, in 1494, situated on the S. side of the town.
It is built round a square, with cloisters on the
south side. The structure contains a chapel, li-
brary, museum, common hall, and lecture-rooms,
with a long range of modern houses, for the ac-
commodation of the professors and students. The
library and museum are well furnished. The old
town, being formerly the seat of a bishop, had a
most magnificient cathedral, first founded in 1154,
but the present edifice was begun by Bishop Kin-
niinonth, in 1357, and was 80 years in building;
it was dedicated to St. Machar, hut like many
others it fell a sacrifice to the religious frenzy of
the reformers. Two very antique spires, and one
aisle, which is used as a church, are all that is now
left. In this cathedral there was a fine library,
which was also destroyed. Over the Don at Old
Aberdeen, there is a noble Gothic bridge, built by
Bishop Cheyne, in 1281, of one arch, 67 feet span
and 34 1-2 high from the surface of the river. On
both sides it rests on a solid ledge of rock. The
population of Old Aberdeen and parish was 3,901
in 1801, and 18,312 in 1821.

Aberdeen, New, is the capital of the shire of Aber-
deen. For extent, trade and beauty, it far exceeds
any town in the north of Scotland. It is huilt on
a gentle eminence, rising from a small hay, form-
ed by the river Dee, over which there is an elegant
bridge of 7 arches, rebuilt in 172a, the first having
been built by Bishop Dunbar, in 1532. The streets
are numerous, spacious, and well paved; the
houses are huilt of granite, (from adjoining quar-
ries) generally four stories high, remarkably neat
and elegant, having almost universally, gardens in
their rear. The whole town is about two miles
in circumference, and in 1821 contained a popu-
lation of 21,484. The municipal government is
vested in a provost, 4 bailies, a dean of guild,
treasurer, town-clerk, a town council, and 7- dea-
cons of incorporated trades. The town is a royal
burgh, and uniting with Aberbrothock, Brechin,
Inverbervie, and Montrose, sends a member to
parliament. New Aberdeen is graced with an
elegant college, founded by George Keith, the
Earl Marischal of Scotland, in 1593. Its other
public buildings are the town-hall, market-house,
the house of the Aberdeen Banking Company,
a cross, an octagon building of curious work-
manship, a dispensary, infirmary, and lunatic asy-
lum, a poor-house, bridewell, gaol, and extensive
barracks. An elegant street from the S. is con-
tinued over an arch of cut granite, 132 ft. span, 29
in height, and 40 wide between the parapets.
Aberdeen had formerly several religious houses ;
besides the university, there is a respectable gram-
mar school and several alms-houses, and upwards
of 20 places for religious worship. The harbour
was formerly dangerous, but has been rendered
safe and commodious, by a pier 1,200 ft. in length,
and 38 in perpendicular height; and the construc-
tion of wet docks, authorised by an act of parlia-
ment, in 1810. Aberdeen was formerly celebrated
for the manufacture of knitstockings, and woollen
fabrics generally, which, although still carried on
to some extent, are now superseded in importance
by the linen and cotton manufactures, which, in
all their branches, are carried on to a great extent.
There is a valuable salmon fishery in the Dee ; a
considerable number of vessels are built at Aber-
deen, and about 40,000 ton3 belong to it. It has
several public breweries, rope works, iron foun-
deries, &c. and three fairs annually on the 31st
Jan. 3rd Wed. in June, and 13th of July ; a canal
19 m. in length to Inverary, contributes not a lit-
tle to the advantage of both places.

Aberdeen, a county of Scotland, bounded on the
N. W. by Banffshire, and the Deveron ; on the N.
and N. E. by the German Ocean : on the S. by the
co. of Kincardine, Forfar, and Perth; and on the
W. by Elgin, and Inverness-shire. It is divided
into 8 districts; the S. part is wild, rugged and
mountainous, some of the hills rising to the height
of 4,000 ft. above the level of the sea, covered in
some parts, with extensive natural forests ; the N.
part is bleak and barren ; but the midland parts of
the co. are more fertile ; and since the period of
1786, have undergone improvements equal to any
part of Scotland. Its rivers are the Dee, Don,
Ythan, Bogie, Urie, Ugie, Cruden; and the Dev-
eron, for many miles forms its boundary with the
co. of Banff; all of which abound more or less,
with salmon, and on the Ythan some valuable
pearls have been found. Its mineral productions
are various, but none of much note, except the
granite, the exportation of which constantly em-
ploys several 100 tons of shipping.

Aberdeen, p.t. Brown Co. Ohio, on the river
Ohio, opposite Maysville.

Aherdour, a parish in the N. of Aberdeenshire, on
the S. coast of Murray Frith. Pop. in 182L, 1,495
also another parish and village 2 m. W. of Burnt-
island, in the co. of Fife, Scotland. Pop. in
1821, 1,489.

Aberford, a town in the W. riding of York-
shire, 9 m. N. of Ferrybridge, on the direct road to
Durham; it has a market on Wed. and 4 fairs
annually. Pop. of the parish 900, of the town

Aberffrow, a village pleasantly situate near the
coast of Caernarvon bay, on the isle of Anglesea
9 m. W. of Llangefni, on the direct road from
Bangor to Holyhead; it had formerly a palace,
at which 11 Princes of Wales are said to have
resided. It has 4 fairs annually, 7th March, Wed.
after Trinity, 23rd Oct. and 11th Dec. Pop. in
1821, 1,204.

Abergavenny, a town of Monmouthshire, situ-
ate at the confluence of the river Gavenny with
the Usk, over the latter is a fine bridge of 15

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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